Race, Class, Gender & Diversity
African American Males: Shifting the Paradigm
in Removing Risks from Children: New Directions for the Delivery of Comprehensive Based Services to African American Families. James Dumpson (ed.), (Chatham, MD: Beckham House).
Black Civil Society: Fighting for a Seat at the Table
Social Policy, Winter .
Blacks & Puerto Ricans in New York City: The Reconfiguration of Race & Racism
in Latinos and Blacks in U.S. Cities, John Betancur and Douglas Gill (eds.) (Garland Press, NY 1999).
Stafford, W.W.& Bonilla, F.
This edited collection examines joint efforts by Latinos and African Americans to confront problems faced by populations of both groups in urban settings (in particular, socioeconomic disadvantage and concentration in inner cities). The essays address two major issues: experiences and bases for collaboration and contention between the two groups; and the impact of urban policies and initiatives of recent decades on Blacks and Latinos in central cities.
High School Size: The Effects on Budgets and Performance in New York City
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Spring
Stiefel, L., Berne, R., Iatarola, P. & Fruchter, N.
Combines budget and performance information to study the effects of high school size. Suggests that since small high schools are more effective for minority and poor students, and the budget per student is found to be similar for small and large schools, policymakers might support the creation of more small high schools. (SLD)
School Finance Court Cases and Disparate Racial Impact: The Contribution of Statistical Analysis in New York
Education and Urban Society, February 2005, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp 151-173.
Stiefel, L., Schwartz, A.E., Berne, R. & Chellman, C.
Although analyses of state school finance systems rarely focus on the distribution of funds to students of different races, the advent of racial discrimination as an issue in school finance court cases may change that situation. In this article, we describe the background, analyses, and results of plaintiffs' testimony regarding racial discrimination in Campaign for Fiscal Equity Inc. v. State of New York. Plaintiffs employed multiple regression and public finance literature to show that New York State's school finance system had a disparate racial impact on New York City students. We review the legal basis for disparate racial impact claims, with particular emphasis on the role of quantitative statistical work, and then describe the model we developed and estimated for the court case. Finally, we discuss the defendants' rebuttal, the Court's decision, and conclude with observations about the role of analysis in judicial decision making in school finance.
Immigrants and the Distribution of Resources within an Urban School District
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Winter 2004, Vol. 26, No. 4. pp- 303-328.
Stiefel, L. & Schwartz, A.E.
In New York City, where almost 14 percent of elementary school pupils are foreign-born and roughly half of these are "recent immigrants," the impact of immigrant students on school resources may be important. While immigrant advocates worry about inequitable treatment of immigrant students, others worry that immigrants drain resources from native-born students. In this article, we explore the variation in school resources and the relationship to the representation of immigrant students. To what extent are variations in school resources explained by the presence of immigrants per se rather than by differences in student educational needs, such as poverty or language skills, or differences in other characteristics, such as race? Our results indicate that, while schools resources decrease with the representation of immigrants, this relationship largely reflects differences in the educational needs of immigrant students. Although analyses that link resources to the representation of foreign-born students in 12 geographic regions of origin find some disparities, these are again largely driven by differences in educational need. Finally, we find that some resources increase over time when there are large increases in the percentage of immigrants in a school, but these results are less precisely estimated. Thus, elementary schools appear not to be biased either against or for immigrants per se, although differences in the needs of particular groups of immigrant students may lead to more (or fewer) school resources.
Realizing the Promise of Diversity
in Handbook of Public Administration 2nd Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, pp. 441-459.
Out Front on the Issues: Explaining the Paradox of Resistance to Gay Stigma in Organizations
A contribution to the symposium "Overcoming Barriers to Equality Among Diverse Sexual Orientations at Work." Academy of Management, Honolulu, HI,
Creed, W.E.D. & Foldy, E.G.
Action Learning, Fragmentation and the Interaction of Single, Double, and Triple Loop Change: A Case of Gay and Lesbian Workplace Advocacy
Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 35 (2).
Foldy, E.G. & Creed, W.E.D.
Proposes an elaborated action-learning framework that decomposes action-learning method into the three components of argument, practice, and outcome. Illumination of multiple facets of change; Analysis of the interaction of the three methods in significant change processes; Application of the framework to a case of gay and lesbian workplace advocacy; How the different action-learning methods work together to create change in an organization.
Sibling Rivalry and the Gender Gap: Evidence from Child Health Outcomes in Ghana
Journal of Populations Economics 11 (4), December 1998, 471 - 493.
Morduch, J. Garg, A.
When capital and labor markets are imperfect, choice sets narrow, and parents must choose how to ration available funds and time between their children. One consequence is that children become rivals for household resources. In economies with pro-male bias, such rivalries can yield gains to having relatively more sisters than brothers. Using a rich household survey from Ghana, we find that on average if children had all sisters (and no brothers) they would do roughly 25-40% better on measured health indicators than if they had all brothers (and no sisters). The effects are as large as typical quantity-quality trade-offs, and they do not differ significantly by gender.
excerpted from Being Black, Living in the Red in Race, Class and Gender: An Anthology. Margaret L. Andersen and Patricia Hill Collins, Eds. 4th Edition. Wadsworth Press.
Getting into the Black: Race, Wealth and Public Policy
Political Science Quarterly. 114:595-612.
Dalton Conley examines the causes and consequences of the black-white asset gap in the United States. He argues that it is wealth, more than any other measure of socio-economic well being, that captures the nature of racial inequality in the post-civil rights era. Conley discusses policy implications that may be used to address such "equity inequity."
Race and the Inheritance of Low Birth Weight
Social Biology. 47:77-93,
Conley, D. & Bennett, N.
This paper uses intergenerational data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to address the black-white difference in propensities toward low birth weight (LBW). We determine that socioeconomic conditions account for some variation in low birth weight across race. Further, while race differences in the risk of low birth weight cannot be explained entirely, we find that the inheritance of parental birth weight status dramatically reduces the black-white gap in low birth weight. Intergenerational legacies of poor infant health explain the largest share of racial disparities in filial birth weight. We then try to assess whether this intergenerational transmission of low birth weight is indeed genetic by using grandparent-fixed effects models to factor out, to a great extent, family socioeconomic circumstances. We find that even within this framework, both father's and mother's birth weight status have an important impact on filial outcomes. However, the degree of inheritance is weaker for African Americans than for other races. Finally, we theorize that the importance of paternal birth weight status implies a genetic association that does not work through the uterine environment but rather through the fetus itself.
Sibship Sex Composition and the Educational Attainment of Men and Women
Social Science Research. 29:441-457,
This study decomposes the detrimental effects of increased sibship on educational attainment by the sex of the respondent and his/her siblings. Previous theories regarding the interaction of gender and sibship sex composition are reviewed and a new hypothesis is offered: a revision of the sex minority hypothesis, positing that an increased number of siblings of the opposite sex (regardless of the of the respondent's gender) are harmful to educational achievement since sex minority children may find their gender-specific needs unmet, may suffer from socialization by the family that conflicts with sex role expectations within the educational system, or because there may exist returns to scale for "gender-specific"goods within the household. Findings reveal that it is the number of opposite sex siblings that most hurts educational attainment efforts, marshalling support for the revised sex minority hypothesis.
Being Black, Living in the Red: Race, Wealth and Social Policy in America
Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
What is more important--race or class--in determining the socioeconomic success of the blacks and whites born since the civil rights triumphs of the 1960s? When compared to whites, African Americans complete less formal schooling, work fewer hours at a lower rate of pay and are more likely to give birth to a child out of wedlock and to rely on welfare. Are these differences attributable to race per se, or are they the result of differences in socioeconomic background between the two groups?Being Black, Living in the Red demonstrates that many differences between blacks and whites stem not from race but from economic inequalities that have accumulated over the course of American history. Property ownership--as measured by net worth--reflects this legacy of economic oppression. The racial discrepancy in wealth holdings leads to advantages for whites in the form of better schools, more desirable residences, higher wages, and more opportunities to save, invest, and thereby further their economic advantages.Dalton Conley shows how factoring parental wealth into a reconceptualization of class can lead to a different future for race policy in the United States. As it currently stands, affirmative action programs primarily address racial diversity in schooling and work--areas that Conley contends generate paradoxical results with respect to racial equity. Instead he suggests an affirmative action policy that fosters minority property accumulation, thereby encouraging long-term wealth equity, or one that--while continuing to address schooling and work--is based on social class as defined by family wealth levels rather than on race.
"Mayoralty" and "City Council"
Kenneth T. Jackson, editor, Encyclopedia of New York City, Yale University Press.
New York City is the biggest, oldest, most crowded, most historic, most ethnically diverse metropolis in the United States. Perhaps because of its vastness, no one before has attempted to compile a reference work that embraces all its aspects. Now here is a book as varied and exciting and all encompassing as the city itself--the definitive reference work on New York City.
Access to Hospitals with High-Technology Cardiac Services: How is Race Important?
American J Public Health. 1995;85:345-351.
Blustein, J. & Weitzman, B.C.
OBJECTIVES. Relatively few hospitals in the United States offer high-technology cardiac services (cardiac catheterization, bypass surgery, or angioplasty). This study examined the association between race and admission to a hospital offering those services. METHODS. Records of 11,410 patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction to hospitals in New York State in 1986 were analyzed. RESULTS. Approximately one third of both White and Black patients presented to hospitals offering high-technology cardiac services. However, in a multivariate model adjusting for home-to-hospital distance, the White-to-Black odds ratio for likelihood of presentation to such a hospital was 1.68 (95% confidence interval = 1.42, 1.98). This discrepancy between the observed and "distance-adjusted" probabilities reflected three phenomena: (1) patients presented to nearby hospitals; (2) Blacks were more likely to live near high-technology hospitals; and (3) there were racial differences in travel patterns. For example, when the nearest hospitals did not include a high-technology hospital, Whites were more likely than Blacks to travel beyond those nearest hospitals to a high-technology hospital. CONCLUSIONS. Whites and Blacks present equally to hospitals offering high-technology cardiac services at the time of acute myocardial infarction. However, there are important underlying racial differences in geographic proximity and tendencies to travel to those hospitals.
Medicare Coverage, Supplemental Insurance, and the Use of Mammography in Older Women
New England Journal of Medicine. 1995;332:1138-43.
BACKGROUND. On January 1, 1991, the Medicare program began offering reimbursement for screening mammography every two years. This study examined the use of mammography in women covered by Medicare during the first two years that the screening benefit was offered. METHODS. Medicare bills for 1991 and 1992 from a nationally representative sample of 4110 women 65 years of age or older were examined to determine the degree of compliance with recognized guidelines for screening mammography and the extent to which the use of mammography was associated with having supplemental insurance, which shields patients from the out-of-pocket costs associated with using Medicare benefits. RESULTS. A total of 36.9 percent of older U.S. women had mammography during the first two years of the Medicare benefit for screening mammography. Only 14.4 percent of the women lacking supplemental insurance had mammography, as compared with 44.7 percent of those with employer-sponsored supplemental insurance, 40.1 percent of those with self-purchased supplemental insurance, and 23.9 percent of those with Medicaid supplemental insurance. These differences persisted in the stratified and multivariate analyses. As compared with women lacking supplemental insurance, women with employment-based supplemental insurance were more likely to undergo mammography (adjusted odds ratio, 3.03; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.17 to 4.23), as were women with self-purchased supplemental insurance (adjusted odds ratio, 2.97; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.13 to 4.15) and women with Medicaid supplemental insurance (adjusted odds ratio, 1.99; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.30 to 3.07). CONCLUSIONS. The use of mammography was substantially below recommended levels during the first two years of Medicare coverage for screening mammography. Women lacking supplemental health insurance were at particularly high risk of failing to undergo mammography. Requiring copayments for preventive services is an obstacle to the effective mass screening of older women for breast cancer.
Sequential Events Contributing to Variations in Cardiac Revascularization Rates
Medical Care. 1995;33:864-880.
Blustein, J., Arons, R.R. & Shea, S.
Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of race, payor, and gender in determining the use of cardiac services, including revascularization procedures (bypass surgery and angioplasty). However, there has been less investigation into where and when in the process of care differences in utilization arise. In this report, the authors examined the sequence of events leading to the use of revascularization procedures, identifying four phases of care (prehospital, intrahospital, interhospital, and posthospital). Following a cohort of 5857 patients admitted to California hospitals with acute myocardial infarction in 1991, the authors found differences in treatment probabilities during nearly every phase for different racial and payor groups. For example, compared with patients who are uninsured, patients with private insurance were more likely to be admitted initially to a hospital offering revascularization (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30 to 1.51). Moreover, once admitted to such a hospital, private patients were more likely to undergo revascularization (adjusted OR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.80 to 2.94). They were also more likely to undergo transfer to receive revascularization (adjusted OR = 1.22; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.45), and to be readmitted for revascularization (adjusted OR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.27). Previously reported discrepancies in service use represent the cumulative effects of multiple phases during which different racial and payor groups experience different processes of care.
The Validity of Hospital Administrative Data in Monitoring Variations in Breast Cancer Surgery
American J Public Health. 1996;86:243-245.
Kahn, L.H., Blustein, J., Arons, R.R., Yee, R.Y. & Shea, S.
To assess the validity of using hospital administrative data to measure variations in surgery for early-stage breast cancer, ICD-9-CM coded information was compared with corresponding tumor registry data for 1293 breast cancer patients undergoing lumpectomy or mastectomy at a tertiary referral center from January 1989 to October 1993. Relative to "gold standard" tumor registry data, the administrative data proved 83.4% sensitive and 80.4% specific in identifying women with localized disease who would be potential candidates for lumpectomy. The proportion of women with localized disease undergoing lumpectomy in groups defined by race and insurance status was nearly identical, whichever data were used. Administrative data, which is often readily and publicly available, may be useful in studying variations in breast cancer treatment in key demographic groups.