SAGE Encyclopedia of Crisis Management, edited by K. B. Penuel, M. Statler, and R. Hagen, Sage Publishers, pp. 188-193
Although now a growing and respectable research field, crisis management—as a formal area of study—is relatively young, having emerged since the 1980s following a succession of such calamities as the Bhopal gas leak, Chernobyl nuclear accident, Space Shuttle Challenger loss, and Exxon Valdez oil spill. Analysis of organizational failures that caused such events helped drive the emerging field of crisis management. Simultaneously, the world has experienced a number of devastating natural disasters: Hurricane Katrina, the Japanese earthquake and tsunami, etc. From such crises, both human-induced and natural, we have learned our modern, tightly interconnected and interdependent society is simply more vulnerable to disruption than in the past. This interconnectedness is made possible in part by crisis management and increases our reliance upon it. As such, crisis management is as beneficial and crucial today as information technology has become over the last few decades.
Crisis is varied and unavoidable. While the examples highlighted above were extreme, we see crisis every day within organizations, governments, businesses and the economy. A true crisis differs from a “routine” emergency, such as a water pipe bursting in the kitchen. Per one definition, “it is associated with urgent, high-stakes challenges in which the outcomes can vary widely (and are very negative at one end of the spectrum) and will depend on the actions taken by those involved.” Successfully engaging, dealing with, and working through a crisis requires an understanding of options and tools for individual and joint decision making. Our Encyclopedia of Crisis Management comprehensively overviews concepts and techniques for effectively assessing, analyzing, managing, and resolving crises, whether they be organizational, business, community, or political. From general theories and concepts exploring the meaning and causes of crisis to practical strategies and techniques relevant to crises of specific types, crisis management is thoroughly explored.
Disparities in Service Quality Among Insured Adult Patients Seen in Physicians’ Offices
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2010. Volume 25 / Issue 04 / April 2010, pp 357-362, Published online
Dan Ly, Sherry Glied
To examine racial disparities in health care service quality.
Secondary data analyses of visits by primary care service users in the Community Tracking Study household sample.
Sixty communities across the United States.
A total of 41,537 insured adult patients making sick visits to primary care physicians in 1996–1997, 1998–1999, 2000–2001, and 2003.
Lag between appointment and physician visit, waiting time in physician office, and satisfaction with care were analyzed.
Blacks but not other minorities were more likely to have an appointment lag of more than 1 week (13% white vs. 21% black, p < 0.001). Blacks, Hispanics, and other minorities were more likely to wait more than 30 min before being seen by the physician (16% white vs. 26% black, p < 0.001; vs. 27% Hispanic and 22% other minority, p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively) and were less likely to report that they were very satisfied with their care (65% white vs. 60% black, p = 0.02; vs. 57% Hispanic and 48% other minority, p = 0.004 and p < 0.001, respectively). The differences in appointment lag and wait time remain large and statistically significant after the inclusion of multiple covariates, including geographic controls for CTS site. For all groups, satisfaction with care was affected by objective measures of service quality. Differences in objective measures of service quality explained much of the black-white difference in satisfaction, though not differences for other minority groups.
There are substantial racial/ethnic disparities in satisfaction with care, and these are related to objective quality measures that can be improved.
Advancing Research Data Infrastructure for Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 2011. Volume 306 / Issue 11 / September 2011, pp 1254-1255, Published online
Amol Navathe, Carolyn Clancy and Sherry Glied
Patient-centered outcomes research, which aims to assist clinicians and patients in making informed decisions regarding prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, is essential for improving the delivery of quality health care. Much of patient-centered outcomes research relies on observational and quasi-experimental methods applied to data generated as a byproduct of providing care. While existing data sources have improved, there remain important data-related barriers to rapid, efficient research. Recent changes in the policy environment, coupled with significant technological progress, provide an opportunity to surmount some of these obstacles.
We All Want It, but We Don't Know What It Is: Toward a Standard of Affordability for Health Insurance Premiums
Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 2011. Volume 36 / Issue 05 / July 2011, pp 829-853, Published online
Peter Muennig, Bhaven Sampat, Nicholas Tilipman, Lawrence D. Brown and Sherry A. Glied
The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (P.L. 111-148), or ACA, requires that U.S. citizens either purchase health insurance or pay a fine. To offset the financial burden for lower-income households, it also provides subsidies to ensure that health insurance premiums are affordable. However, relatively little work has been done on how such affordability standards should be set. The existing literature on affordability is not grounded in social norms and has methodological and theoretical flaws. To address these issues, we developed a series of hypothetical vignettes in which individual and household sociodemographic characteristics were varied. We then convened a panel of eighteen experts with extensive experience in affordability standards to evaluate the extent to which each vignette character could afford to pay for one of two health insurance plans. The panel varied with respect to political ideology and discipline. We find that there was considerable disagreement about how affordability is defined. There was also disagreement about what might be included in an affordability standard, with substantive debate surrounding whether savings, debt, education, or single parenthood is relevant. There was also substantial variation in experts' assessed affordability scores. Nevertheless, median expert affordability assessments were not far from those of ACA.
Using Electronically Available Inpatient Hospital Data for Research
Clinical and Translational Science, 2011. Volume 4 / Issue 05 / October 2011, pp 338-345, Published online
Mandar Apte, Matthew Neidell, E. Yoko Furuya, David Caplan, Sherry Glied, and Elaine Larson
Despite a push to create electronic health records and a plethora of healthcare data from disparate sources, there are no data from a single electronic source that provide a full picture of a patient’s hospital course. This paper describes a process to utilize electronically available inpatient hospital data for research. We linked several different sources of extracted data, including clinical, procedural, administrative, and accounting data, using patients’ medical record numbers to compile a cohesive, comprehensive account of patient encounters. Challenges encountered included (1) interacting with distinct administrative units to locate data elements; (2) finding a secure, central location to house the data; (3) appropriately defining health measures of interest; (4) obtaining and linking these data to create a usable format for conducting research; and (5) dealing with missing data. Although the resulting data set is incredibly rich and likely to prove useful for a wide range of clinical and comparative effectiveness research questions, there are multiple challenges associated with linking hospital data to improve the quality of patient care. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 338–345
The Oxford Handbook of Health Economics
Oxford University Press.
Glied, Sherry and Peter C. Smith
The Oxford Handbook of Health Economics provides an accessible and authoritative guide to health economics, intended for scholars and students in the field, as well as those in adjacent disciplines including health policy and clinical medicine. The chapters stress the direct impact of health economics reasoning on policy and practice, offering readers an introduction to the potential reach of the discipline. Contributions come from internationally-recognized leaders in health economics and reflect the worldwide reach of the discipline. Authoritative, but non-technical, the chapters place great emphasis on the connections between theory and policy-making, and develop the contributions of health economics to problems arising in a variety of institutional contexts, from primary care to the operations of health insurers. The volume addresses policy concerns relevant to health systems in both developed and developing countries. It takes a broad perspective, with relevance to systems with single or multi-payer health insurance arrangements, and to those relying predominantly on user charges; contributions are also included that focus both on medical care and on non-medical factors that affect health. Each chapter provides a succinct summary of the current state of economic thinking in a given area, as well as the author's unique perspective on issues that remain open to debate. The volume presents a view of health economics as a vibrant and continually advancing field, highlighting ongoing challenges and pointing to new directions for further progress.
Crisis policymaking and management in Southeast Asia
Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, (ed: J. Rabin), New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc (online and forthcoming in the second edition print edition, 2007), 9 pp.
The ‘misery’ of implementation: Governance, institutions and anti-corruption in Vietnam
in Tarling, N. (ed) Corruption and good governance in Asia, New York: Routledge, pp. 98-120.
Implementation of anti-corruption programs is plagued by a paradox: the very actors posited to be the source of the problem are those most critical to implementation success. This paper presents a framework for understanding the large gaps that exist between policy intentions and outcomes in anti-corruption programs. It applies this to ‘grassroots democratization’ as an anti-corruption initiative in Vietnam, a high-profile policy mandating greater transparency in local budget use and participation in decisionmaking. Local leaders in this case face weak incentives for implementation that stem from both poor policy design and local institutional environments. But as with many anti-corruption programs in adverse environments, potential exists for the initiative to
provide tools with which reform-minded leaders and social groups can challenge local governance practices in unanticipated ways.
How do governance capacities affect patterns of crisis management?
Towards an analytical framework, in C. Raj Kumar and D.K. Srivastava (eds) Tsunami and disaster management: Law and Governance, Hong Kong: Sweet and Maxwell, pp. 79-10.
Negotiation and conflict management: A Public Policy Perspective.
Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, (ed: J. Rabin), New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. (online and forthcoming in the second edition print edition, 2007) 8 pp.
Fuller, B.W., Fritzen, Scott.
Efficient Funding: Auditing in the Nonprofit Sector
Manufacturing & Service Operations Management. 13(4) 471-488.
N. Privett and F. Erhun
Nonprofit organizations are a critical part of society as well as a growing sector of the economy. For funders there is an increasing and pressing need to ensure that society reaps the most social benefit for their money while also developing the nonprofit sector as a whole. By routinely scrutinizing nonprofit reports in an effort to deduce whether a nonprofit organization is efficient, funders may believe that they are, in fact, giving responsibly. However, we find that these nonprofit reports are unreliable, supporting a myriad of empirical research and revealing that report-based funding methods do not facilitate efficient allocation of funds. In response, we develop audit contracts that put funders in a position to enact change. Auditing, perhaps obviously, supports funders; however, we find that it also benefits the population of nonprofits. Moreover, auditing results in improved efficiency for the nonprofit sector overall. Indeed, our conclusions indicate that nonprofits may want to work with funders to increase the use of auditing, consequently increasing efficiency for the sector overall and impacting society as a whole.
Managers, Teachers, Researchers: Sharing Experience in Health Care
Health Care Management Review, 27 (4), pp. 68-75.
The author observes that academic training is an asset for any managerial position in the health sector. As with medicine and nursing, health care management should be more evidence-based. The author argues that top managers in health care generally lack adequate internal support to rigorously evaluate strategic interventions or consultant recommendations and to learn from industrywide best practices.
in A.R. Kovner and S. Jonas (eds.) Health Care Delivery in the United States, New York, Springer, 7th edition, pp 145-72.
How do we understand and also assess the health care of America? Where is health care provided? What are the characteristics of those institutions which provide it? Over the short term, how are changes in health care provisions affecting the health of the population, the cost of care and access to care? These core questions regarding our health policy are answered in this text.
Agenda Setting for Health Care Management Research: Report of a Conference
Health Care Management Review, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 319-322.
Highlights the "Agenda Setting for Health Care Management Research," conference held in New York City on January 23-24, 2003. Generating research funding; Barriers to using management research; Overcoming barriers to funding.
Access to Health Care Services
in Health Care Delivery in the United States, Seventh Edition Kovner A., Jonas, S. Eds. New York: Springer Publishing Company,
Billings, J. & Cantor, J.
How do we understand and also assess the health care of America? Where is health care provided? What are the characteristics of those institutions which provide it? Over the short term, how are changes in health care provisions affecting the health of the population, the cost of care, and access to care? Health Care Delivery in the United States, 8 th Edition discusses these and other core issues in the field. Under the editorship of Dr. Kovner and with the addition of Dr. James Knickman, Senior VP of Evaluation, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, leading thinkers and practitioners in the field examine how medical knowledge creates new healthcare services. Emerging and recurrent issues from wide perspectives of health policy and public health are also discussed. With an easy to understand format and a focus on the major core challenges of the delivery of health care, this is the textbook of choice for course work in health care, the handbook for administrators and policy makers, and the standard for in-service training programs.
The Health Care System Under French National Health Insurance: Lessons for Health Reform in the United States
The American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 93, No. 1.
The French health system combines universal coverage with a public–private mix of hospital and ambulatory care and a higher volume of service provision than in the United States. Although the system is far from perfect, its indicators of health status and consumer satisfaction are high; its expenditures, as a share of gross domestic product, are far lower than in the United States; and patients have an extraordinary degree of choice among providers. Lessons for the United States include the importance of government’s role in providing a statutory framework for universal health insurance; recognition that piecemeal reform can broaden a partial program (like Medicare) to cover, eventually, the entire population; and understanding that universal coverage can be achieved without excluding private insurers from the supplementary insurance market.
Budgeting Concepts for Nurse Managers
3rd Edition, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 480 pages.
This book helps nurses develop and refine good budgeting skills - a necessity in today's economy-driven health care system. Clearly written and thoroughly understandable, this new edition shows first-line nurse managers and their immediate supervisors how to work effectively with financial staff and management, and how to develop, monitor, and maintain departmental and institutional budgets. It is written at a level that assumes no previous financial management experience or expertise on the part of the reader.