Measuring School Finance Equity using School Finance Statistics
Encyclopedia of Education Economics and Finance, editors Dominic Brewer and Lawrence Picus, Sage, CA
This entry briefly outlines the origin of school finance statistics and describes the Berne-Stiefel framework for identifying the values of school finance equity. It then introduces various measures of horizontal, vertical, and taxpayer equity and concludes by highlighting school finance research that utilizes these measures.
Measuring the Equity of School Finance Policies: A Conceptual and Empirical Analysis
Policy Analysis, 7 (1):47-70. Reprinted in Ray C. Rist, ed., Policy Studies Review Annual, Volume 6, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA., 1982: 620-642.
Berne, Robert and Leanna Stiefel
Measuring Equity at the School Level: The Finance Perspective
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 16 (4): 405-421.
Berne, Robert and Leanna Stiefel
This article explores conceptual, methodological, and empirical issues in resource allocation at the intradistrict and school levels. With increased attention focused on policies and data related to resources within districts, it is important that analytical problems and potential solutions be debated by researchers. The article develops ways that equity concepts can apply at the school level, identifies a series of methodological issues, and includes an empirical analysis of vertical equity at the intradistrict and school levels in New York City.
School Cost Accounting: What Do We Know and How Do We Get There?
Public Performance & Management Review, 35 (1): 29-53.
Denison, Dwight, William Hartman, Leanna Stiefel and Michele Deegan
This paper describes a model for assessing and reporting schoollevel resources. State and local decision-makers have been seeking ways to obtain such information for more than a decade, but there is as yet no easy, accessible way to do so and no way to satisfy both internal and external users of the information. The model, based on case studies in Pennsylvania (with successful replication in New York), resolves many of the issues. The seven principles that guide the model are explained, challenges in developing school-level reports are generalized, and resolutions to the challenges in three states are compared. The conclusion draws out implications for the future of regularly collected school resource data.
Using incentives and accountability to improve school performance: Proposals for the Ministry of Education and Training in Vietnam
Melbourne University Private for the World Bank Primary Teacher Development Project, Vietnam
Framework and Recommendations for the Viet Nam National Program of Action for Children 2011-2020
UNICEF, Viet Nam
Short-duration, high-intensity executive education: Mission impossible? Center for the Development of Teaching and Learning
DTLink, Vol 9(2), cover story.
From ‘good to great’ in global public policy education.
Public Policy Education Goes Global: A Multidimensional Challenge
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 27(1): 205-214.
There is little doubt that globalization, however defined, has hit the field of
professional policy education in the twenty years since APPAM’s Hiltonhead conference on the future of policy education first took stock of a largely American landscape. Despite the title of this session, the relevant development is not merely the accretion of public policy schools and programs around the world. It is the recognition of international dimensions of the policy education enterprise that, if taken seriously (and participants in this discussion argued that it must), promises to change the way we conduct business on multiple levels. This report of the lively discussion generated in the wake of Iris Geva-May and her coauthors’ stimulating conference paper1 explores why and how.
School District Pension Bond Issuance and the Influence on Spending Behavior
Association for Education Finance and Policy
Calabrese, T., Ely, T. L.
You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist
W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
The Long-Term Effects of Military Conscription on Mortality: Estimates From the Vietnam-Era Draft Lottery
Conley, Dalton and Jennifer Heerwig.
Research on the effects of Vietnam military service suggests that Vietnam veterans experienced significantly higher mortality than the civilian population at large. These results, however, may be biased by nonrandom selection into the military if unobserved background differences between veterans and nonveterans affect mortality directly. To generate unbiased estimates of exposure to conscription on mortality, the present study compares the observed proportion of draft-eligible male decedents born 1950–1952 to the (1) expected proportion of draft-eligible male decedents given Vietnam draft-eligibility cutoffs; and (2) observed proportion of draft-eligible decedent women. The results demonstrate no effect of draft exposure on mortality, including for cause-specific death rates. When we examine population subgroups—including splits by race, educational attainment, nativity, and marital status—we find weak evidence for an interaction between education and draft eligibility. This interaction works in the opposite direction of putative education-enhancing, mortality-reducing effects of conscription that have, in the past, led to concern about a potential exclusion restriction violation in instrumental variable (IV) regression models. We suggest that previous research, which has shown that Vietnam-era veterans experienced significantly higher mortality than nonveterans, might be biased by nonrandom selection into the military and should be further investigated.
A School-Randomized Clinical Trial of an Integrated Social-Emotional Learning and Literacy Intervention: Impacts on Third-Grade Outcomes
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(6): 829-842
Jones, S.M., Brown, J.L, Hoglund, W.L.G., & J.L. Aber.
Objective: To report experimental impacts of a universal, integrated school-based intervention in social–emotional learning and literacy development on change over 1 school year in 3rd-grade children's social–emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes. Method: This study employed a school-randomized, experimental design and included 942 3rd-grade children (49% boys; 45.6% Hispanic/Latino, 41.1% Black/African American, 4.7% non-Hispanic White, and 8.6% other racial/ethnic groups, including Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American) in 18 New York City public elementary schools. Data on children's social–cognitive processes (e.g., hostile attribution biases), behavioral symptomatology (e.g., conduct problems), and literacy skills and academic achievement (e.g., reading achievement) were collected in the fall and spring of 1 school year. Results: There were main effects of the 4Rs Program after 1 year on only 2 of the 13 outcomes examined. These include children's self-reports of hostile attributional biases (Cohen's d = 0.20) and depression ( d = 0.24). As expected based on program and developmental theory, there were impacts of the intervention for those children identified by teachers at baseline with the highest levels of aggression ( d = 0.32–0.59) on 4 other outcomes: children's self-reports of aggressive fantasies, teacher reports of academic skills, reading achievement scaled scores, and children's attendance. Conclusions: This report of effects of the 4Rs intervention on individual children across domains of functioning after 1 school year represents an important first step in establishing a better understanding of what is achievable by a schoolwide intervention such as the 4Rs in its earliest stages of unfolding. The first-year impacts, combined with our knowledge of sustained and expanded effects after a second year, provide evidence that this intervention may be initiating positive developmental cascades both in the general population of students and among those at highest behavioral risk.
Improving Classroom Quality: Teacher Influences and Experimental Impacts of the 4Rs Program
Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(1), 153-167
Brown, J.L., Jones, S.M., LaRusso, M.D., & J.L. Aber.
This study capitalizes on recent advances in the reliable and valid measurement of classroom-level social processes known to influence children's social–emotional and academic development and addresses a number of limitations in our current understanding of teacher- and intervention-related impacts on elementary school classroom processes. A cluster randomized controlled trial design was employed to (a) examine whether teacher social–emotional functioning forecasts differences in the quality of 3rd-grade classrooms, (b) test the experimental impact of a school-based social–emotional learning and literacy intervention on the quality of classroom processes controlling for teacher social–emotional functioning, and (c) examine whether intervention impacts on classroom quality are moderated by these teacher-related factors. Results indicated (a) positive effects of teachers' perceived emotional ability on classroom quality; (b) positive effects of the 4Rs Program on overall classroom quality, net of teacher social–emotional functioning indicators; and (c) intervention effects that are robust to differences in these teacher factors. These findings support and extend recent research examining intervention-induced changes in classroom-level social processes fundamental to positive youth development.
Classroom Settings as Targets of Intervention and Research
In M. Shinn & H. Yoshikawa (Eds.) Toward Positive Youth Development: Transforming Schools and Community Programs (pp 58-77). UK: Oxford University PRess, Inc.
Jones, S.M., Brown, J.L., & J.L. Aber.
Going Solo: The Extraordinary Rise and Surprising Appeal of Living Alone
Penguin Press, 2012
The 2013 Federal Budget's Impact on Communities of Color and Low-Income Families
Women of Color Policy Network
The Obama administration's budget proposal for fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) strengthens the national economy by investing in schools, communities and safety net programs. The FY 2013 budget also includes a number of important investments in infrastructure that will spur much needed job growth in a time of economic uncertainty for many working and low-income families. It is critical that such investments take into account the persistently high unemployment in communities of color, and target spending to increase the economic security of the communities most impacted by the "Great Recession." Additionally, the budget includes important changes to the tax code that will lay the foundation for a fairer and more equitable economy.
Is severity of obesity associated with diagnosis or health education practices?
Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Jan 24. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2012.1.
Leventer-Roberts M, Patel A and Leonardo Trasande.
To assess the association of the severity of obesity with diagnosis and health education, and to identify any differences within demographic or other subgroups.
Clinician visits for 2-18 year olds from the 2005-2008 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were combined. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare diagnosis of obesity and health education (nutrition, exercise and weight reduction) across elevated body mass index (BMI) groups (overweight, obese and extreme or very obese, defined as >120% of the 95th percentile for age and gender), patient socio-demographic characteristics, physician specialty and type of visit (well child visits (WCV) versus non-well child visits (non-WCV).
A total of 17 808 visits had a calculated BMI, of which 5.8% were extremely obese, 13% were obese and 15.2% were overweight, with the highest percentages among older children, blacks and Hispanics. Diagnosis and weight reduction education were higher among children with an extreme BMI. Nutrition and exercise education were not correlated with severity of obesity. Race, ethnicity or gender biases were not identified. Severity of obesity was significantly associated with presentation to a non-WCV rather than a WCV.
Extremely obese children have higher, but still insufficient, rates of diagnosis and health education. Nutrition and exercise education are not prevalent throughout all age groups. Providers may be relying inconsistently and insufficiently on visual cues to drive their obesity prevention practices. Furthermore, lower rates of diagnosis and education at non-WCV may result in a missed opportunity to prevent comorbidities. This is of particular concern as overweight children are less likely to be seen at WCV than non-WCV.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 24 January 2012; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.1.
The American Single Mother
Women of Color Policy Network
Across race and age groups, education is the single greatest predictor of single-motherhood in America. This policy brief offers a profile of the American single woman mother, contemporary population trends, and the economic security of this growing demographic. See also our full report "At Ropes End: Single Women Mothers, Wealth and Asset Accumulation in the United States.
Race, Gender and the Recession: Job Creation and Employment
C. Nicole Mason, Ph.D
This report focuses on the effect of the recession and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) on economically marginalized communities. The Network highlights four key areas of impact for women of color and their families: job creation and employment, housing and social services, education, and tax cuts to individuals.