High Performance Government: Structure, Leadership, Incentives
Light, P.C. & Klitgaard, R.
Fixing problems in the federal government. In 2003, the National Commission on the Public Service, chaired by Paul Volcker, issued a report detailing problems within the federal government today and recommending changes in its organization, leadership, and operations. This book suggests practical ways to implement the recommendations and defines a research agenda for the future. Thirteen essays address the primary problem areas identified by the Volcker Commission, and the commission report itself is included.
The Public Interest Company as a Mechanism to Improve Service Delivery: Suggestions for the Reorganization of the London Underground and National health Service Trusts
Public Management Foundation, March
A major issue on the national agenda in the United Kingdom is how to improve public services. There is no single, simple solution. A serious commitment to that goal will require additional resources and innovative leadership that can use the funding wisely. Such an effort also will require new organizational forms for the delivery of services. Alternatives to both traditional public bureaucracies and for-profit businesses are likely to be an essential component of designs for more cost effective public services. The Public Management Foundation (PMF) in London is a ‘think tank' that has begun to address the emerging need for new organizational structures. Their suggestion is to develop an entity that they call a ‘public interest company' (PIC). Such a body is proposed as one of many ways to help improve services: ‘Our collective point is that the way in which the British system allows organisations to deliver public services has been too restrictive and a far wider variety of organisational forms for public service delivery needs to be encouraged. The public interest company will be just one of these.'
Leadership (Re)constructed: How Lens Matters
Ospina, S. & Schall, E.
This paper develops a view of leadership as a social construct, as something that is created through dialogue among groups of people in a particular context. Different contexts allow us to see how leadership emerges in action. We further develop the idea that leadership is relational to highlight its social and collective nature and to stress the importance of studying leadership in context. The way people make meaning of leadership is an important focus, so it becomes necessary to understand the "knowledge principle," or dominant ideas that inform the work of leadership, as well. This approach contributes to the development of the body of literature that views leadership as a collective achievement, not something that belongs to an individual. Not only does this approach hold promise to provide interesting new insights to enrich leadership theory, it allows for the opportunity to produce new knowledge that is useful to practitioners, thereby enhancing existing leadership and inspiring new leadership to emerge.
Appreciative Narratives as Leadership Research: Matching Method to Lens
In David Cooperrider and Michel Avital (eds), Advances in Appreciative Inquiry Vol 1: Constructive Discourse and Human Organization. Elsevier Science, Ltd.
Schall, E., Ospina, S., Godsoe, B. & Dodge, J.
This chapter explores the potential of appreciative inquiry for doing empirical work on leadership. We use a framework that matches a constructionist theoretical lens, an appreciative and participative stance, a focus on the work of leadership (as opposed to leaders), and multiple methods of inquiry (narrative, ethnographic and cooperative). We elaborate on our experiences with narrative inquiry, while highlighting the value of doing narrative inquiry in an appreciative manner. Finally, we suggest that this particular framework is helping us see how social change leadership work reframes the value that the larger society attributes to members of vulnerable communities.
In G. R. Goethals, G. S. Sorenson, & J. M. Burns, Encyclopedia of Leadership 2004, pp. 1279-1284. Thousand Oaks, CA.
People are fascinated by the stories of leaders, but not much has been written about the forces that shape them. This set brings together "what truly matters about leadership" to map an emerging discipline that draws from history, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, political science, and psychology. It seeks to answer questions such as what is leadership? What is a great leader? What is a great follower? What are the types of leadership? And how does someone become a leader?
Co-Producing Knowledge: Practitioners and Scholars Working Together to Understand Leadership.
In Cynthia Cherrey and Larraine R. Matusak (ed.) Building Leadership Bridges International Leadership Association. 2002, pp. 59-67.
Ospina, S., Schall, E., Godsoe, B. & Dodge, J.
The Ford Foundation, the Washington D.C. based Advocacy Institute and the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University are partners in a new
leadership awards program called Leadership for a Changing World (LCW). The goal of this program is to recognize and better understand social change leadership in American
communities. As the research and documentation team for the project, we are partnering with the program's awardees to generate new knowledge about the ways in which communities trying to make social change engage in the work of leadership. In doing this work, we have begun to explore and test a new approach to working with practitioners to co-produce knowledge about leadership.
The Pecking Order: Which Siblings Succeed and Why
New York: Pantheon Books,
In recent years, people have begun to examine family dynamics for clues to individual success. Birth order, in particular, has been a favored explanation for the differences between siblings in everything from leadership skills to romantic conquests. Now Dalton Conley, a sociology professor at NYU, reveals that indeed our siblings may affect how our lives turn out, but not in the ways we might think. Conley made an effort not to simplify the very complex familial data collected by both the United States Census, a long-term study conducted by the University of Michigan, and the University of Chicago's General Social Survey. What he found was that the differences between siblings outweigh almost every other kind of difference between any two individuals in the United States. Every family has a pecking order independent of birth order, and the differences between siblings are magnified by poverty and disenfranchisement. In these situations, families invest in the sibling most likely to succeed, leading to stark divides, even class differences between family members. Oddly, the choice of successful sibling is made independent of birth order, parental attention, or innate talents, and becomes a tacit agreement among family members. Conley uses a plethora of examples, including Bill and Roger Clinton, to illustrate his findings, and readers will nod knowingly at many of the ubiquitous family behaviors that set siblings up for differing life paths. Ultimately, what The Pecking Order reveals is that there is no single factor that can predict one's success or failure in life, but that complex, multilayered familial dynamics play the biggest part in determining our fate.
Leadership and the Psychology of Power
In D. M. Messick & R. Kramer (Eds.),The Psychology of Leadership: New Perspectives and Research. Lawrence Erlbaum,
Magee, J.C., Gruenfeld, D.H., Keltner, D. & Galinsky, A.
This chapter begins to fill in a gap in the leadership literature by looking at the psychological experience of leaders. We assume most leaders possess power over those whom they lead, and we explicate a theory of how power affects cognition and behavior. First, power-holders' attention is focused on non-conscious and conscious goal-relevant information. Thus, power-holders interpret social information in relation to their goals. They are less likely to process social norms and standards of behavior that could impede progress toward goals, and they are more likely to see others in relation to their goals. Second, as judgments of the self by others are less consequential, power-holders experience a decrease in public self-awareness, or self-consciousness. Third, power-holders' self-regulatory mechanisms, which require effortful control, break down for reasons of motivation and cognitive busyness. Power-holders are less motivated to control their behavior because they care less about others' judgments, but they also are less able to control their behavior because their cognitive resources tend to be more occupied. These three factors -- increased goal focus, decreased self-consciousness, and decreased self-regulation - converge to increase the likelihood of automatic behavior that represents power holders' "dominant" situational responses.
From Consent to Mutual Inquiry: Balancing Democracy and Authority in Action Research
Action Research, March, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 47-69 (22) Sage Publications.
Ospina, S., Dodge, J., Godsoe, B., Mineri, J., Reza, S. & Schall, E.
The Leadership for a Changing World (LCW) program is a joint endeavor between the Ford Foundation, the Advocacy Institute, and the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service. This paper focuses on the experiences of the Research and Documentation component of LCW – lead by a research team from the Wagner School – during the initial implementation phases of the research. This component formed an inquiry group consisting of both academic researchers and social change practitioners to collaboratively explore and discover the ways in which communities doing social change engage in the work of leadership. We used group relations theory to understand a series of critical dilemmas and contradictions experienced by the coresearchers. This paper identifies four such paradoxes that center around issues of democracy and authority.
Health Policies for the 21st Century: Challenges and Recommendations for the USDHHS
Milbank Memorial Fund, Fall
Boufford, J.I. & Lee, P.R.
This report recommends a comprehensive reassessment of federal health policies, programs, and processes, including federal-state roles and relationships, and some immediate actions to promote and protect the nation's health and to provide leadership in world health. The report concentrates on the challenges facing the secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) as the head of the lead health agency in the federal government. The federal government is responsible for five main functions related to health policy: financing; public health protection; collecting and disseminating information about U.S. health and health care delivery systems; capacity building for population health; and direct management of services.
Unlike the current categorical, or highly specialized, approach leading to policies and programs addressing the needs of a specific population, illness, or organizational constituency, a new, comprehensive approach to policy for the 21st century should promote coordinated efforts across programs in order to achieve three goals:
* create conditions that lead to longer, healthier lives for all Americans;
* eliminate health disparities;
* protect communities from avoidable health hazards and help them to address their own health problems.
'Managing' Diversity: Power and Identity in Organizations
in I. Aaltio-Marjosola & A. Mills (Eds.) Gender, Identities and the Cultures of Organizations. London, Routledge.
Gender, Identity and the Culture of Organizations considers how organizations operate as spaces in which minds are gendered and men and women constructed. This edited collection brings together four powerful themes that have developed within the field of organizational analysis over the past two decades: organizational culture; the gendering of organizations; postmodernism and organizational analysis; and critical approaches to management. A range of essays by distinguished writers from countries including the UK, USA, Canada, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden, explore innovative methods for the critical theorizing of organizational cultures. In particular, the book reflects the growing interest in the impact of organizational identity formation and its implications for individuals and organizational outcomes in terms of gender. The book also introduces research designs, methods and methodologies by which can be used to explore the complex interrelationships between gender, identity and the culture of organizations.
Reader in Gender, Work and Organization
Ely, R., Foldy, E.G. & Scully, M.
This reader uses an alternative approach to gender at work to provoke new thinking about traditional management topics, such as leadership and negotiation. Presents students with an alternative conceptual approach to gender in the workplace. Connects gender with other dimensions of difference such as race and class for a deeper understanding of diversity in organizations. Illustrates how traditional images of competence and the ideal worker result in narrow ways of thinking about work, limiting both opportunity and organizational effectiveness. Provokes new ways of thinking about leadership, human resource management, negotiation, globalization and organizational change.
Outsourcing by Nonprofit Organizations
Task force report, Avner B'Ner chair, National Center on Nonprofit Enterprise,
This chapter examines the issue of when nonprofits should choose to employ their own staff or house their own operations, versus contracting out tasks and activities to other suppliers. Various examples are offered of nonprofits decisions that may be outsourced or retained in-house. The concepts of specialization, comparative advantage and transactions costs are used to explain the logic of outsourcing, how it applies to various circumstances encountered by nonprofit organizations, and the desirability of this strategy in each case.
First Person Practice: Using Action Science/Action Inquiry to Improve Ourselves, Our Interactions, and Our Research
Professional Development Workshop. Academy of Management. Washington, D. C. August 6-8
Foldy, E.G., Rudolph, J.R. & Taylor, S.S.
Negotiating Accountability: Managerial Lessons from Identity-Based Nonprofit Organizations
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, March, Vol 31, No. 1, pp. 5-31.
Ospina, S., Diaz, W. & O'Sullivan, J.
This article explores the emerging conceptualization of accountability in nonprofit organizations. This definition broadens traditional concerns with finances, internal controls, and regulatory compliance. The authors explore how the top-level managers of 4 identity-based nonprofit organizations (IBNPs) faced accountability and responsiveness challenges to accomplish their mission. The organization-community link was the core relationship in their accountability environment, helping the IBNP managers achieve what the literature calls "negotiated accountability." The managers favored organizational mechanisms to sustain this relationship in the midst of the accountability demands they experienced daily. Communication with the primary constituency tended to drive the organization's priorities and programs, helped managers find legitimate negotiation tools with other stakeholders, and helped develop a broader notion of accountability. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for other nonprofit organizations and propose questions to further clarify the concepts of broad accountability, negotiated accountability, and the link between accountability and responsiveness in nonprofits.
Does Government Funding Alter Nonprofit Governance? Evidence from New York City Contractors
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 21(3):359-379.
O'Regan, K. & Oster, S.M.
This paper explores the relationship between nonprofit board governance practices and government contracting. Monitoring by a board is one way a governmental agency can help to insure quality performance by its contractors. Agencies could thus use both their selection process and their post-contracting power to influence board practice. Using a new, rich data set on the nonprofit contractors of New York City, we test a series of hypotheses on the effects of government funding on board practices. We find that significant differences exist in board practices as a function of government funding levels, differences that mark a shift of focus or energy away from some activities, towards others. Trustees of nonprofits which receive high government funding are significantly less likely to engage in the traditional board functions, such as fund raising, while more likely to engage in financial monitoring and advocacy.
Presidential Calls for Volunteerism
Brookings Review, Fall,
La Evaluación de los Resultados de la Gestión Pública: Una Herramienta Técnica y Política
(Outcome Evaluation for Public Management: A Technical and Political Tool) in Cunill, Nuria, Ospina, Sonia (ed.) Evaluación de Resultados para una Gestión Pública Moderna y Democrática. Experiencias Latinoamericanas. Venezuela: CLAD – Editorial Texto, pp. 435-494.
Ospina, S. & Cunill, N.
El Sistema Nacional de Evaluación de Resultados de la Gestión Pública (Sinergia) de Colombia
(Colombian National System of Outcome Evaluation of the Public Management) in Cunill, Nuria, Ospina, Sonia (ed.) Evaluación de Resultados para una Gestión Pública Moderna y Democrática. Experiencias Latinoamericanas. Venezuela: CLAD–Editorial Texto, pp. 143-238.
Ospina, S. & Ochoa, D.
Measuring the Health of the Public Service
in Roger Davidson, ed., Workways of Governance, Brookings,