Chronic Condition: Why Health Reform Fails
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Chronic Condition provides a compelling analysis of the causes of the current health care crisis and of the shortcomings of reform proposals. It also offers an ingenious new framework for reform that, while minimizing government interference, would provide a means for financing care for the less affluent.
Sherry Glied shows that rising health care spending is consistent with a rising standard of living. Since we can, as a nation, afford more health care, reform must address not the overall level of health care costs but the distribution of health care spending.
Prior reform proposals, Glied argues, have failed to account for the tension between the clearly manifested desire for improving the quality of health care and the equally widespread interest in assuring that the less fortunate share in these improvements. After careful analysis of the ill-fated Clinton plan, Glied proposes a new solution that would make the willingness to pay for innovation the means of financing health care improvements for the less affluent. While rejecting the idea that the distribution of health care should be perfectly equal, Glied's proposal would enable all Americans to benefit from the dynamics of the free market.
Better but Not Well: Mental Health Policy in the United States Since 1950
Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.
Richard G. Frank and Sherry A. Glied
The past half-century has been marked by major changes in the treatment of mental illness: important advances in understanding mental illnesses, increases in spending on mental health care and support of people with mental illnesses, and the availability of new medications that are easier for the patient to tolerate. Although these changes have made things better for those who have mental illness, they are not quite enough.
In Better But Not Well, Richard G. Frank and Sherry A. Glied examine the well-being of people with mental illness in the United States over the past fifty years, addressing issues such as economics, treatment, standards of living, rights, and stigma. Marshaling a range of new empirical evidence, they first argue that people with mental illness—severe and persistent disorders as well as less serious mental health conditions—are faring better today than in the past. Improvements have come about for unheralded and unexpected reasons. Rather than being a result of more effective mental health treatments, progress has come from the growth of private health insurance and of mainstream social programs—such as Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income, housing vouchers, and food stamps—and the development of new treatments that are easier for patients to tolerate and for physicians to manage.
The authors remind us that, despite the progress that has been made, this disadvantaged group remains worse off than most others in society. The "mainstreaming" of persons with mental illness has left a policy void, where governmental institutions responsible for meeting the needs of mental health patients lack resources and programmatic authority. To fill this void, Frank and Glied suggest that institutional resources be applied systematically and routinely to examine and address how federal and state programs affect the well-being of people with mental illness.
The Oxford Handbook of Health Economics
Oxford University Press.
Glied, Sherry and Peter C. Smith
The Oxford Handbook of Health Economics provides an accessible and authoritative guide to health economics, intended for scholars and students in the field, as well as those in adjacent disciplines including health policy and clinical medicine. The chapters stress the direct impact of health economics reasoning on policy and practice, offering readers an introduction to the potential reach of the discipline. Contributions come from internationally-recognized leaders in health economics and reflect the worldwide reach of the discipline. Authoritative, but non-technical, the chapters place great emphasis on the connections between theory and policy-making, and develop the contributions of health economics to problems arising in a variety of institutional contexts, from primary care to the operations of health insurers. The volume addresses policy concerns relevant to health systems in both developed and developing countries. It takes a broad perspective, with relevance to systems with single or multi-payer health insurance arrangements, and to those relying predominantly on user charges; contributions are also included that focus both on medical care and on non-medical factors that affect health. Each chapter provides a succinct summary of the current state of economic thinking in a given area, as well as the author's unique perspective on issues that remain open to debate. The volume presents a view of health economics as a vibrant and continually advancing field, highlighting ongoing challenges and pointing to new directions for further progress.
Post-Employment Benefits: Pensions and Retiree Health Care
In Richard C. Kearney and Jerrell D. Coggburn, Eds., Public Human Resource Management: Problems and Prospects, 6th Edition (Pearson)
Calabrese, Thad and Justin Marlowe
Framework and Recommendations for the Viet Nam National Program of Action for Children 2011-2020
UNICEF, Viet Nam
Local Government Performance and Decentralization: A Comparative Approach With Application to Social Policy Reform in Vietnam
Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University
“Introduction” and “Strengthening social protection in low income countries”
Fritzen, S. and V. Kumar [eds.] (2004), Social security in a developing world context, New Delhi: Serials Publications, pp. 1-17 and 90-108.
Escaping the low income – low social protection trap in developing countries: What are the options?
Indian Journal of Social Development, 3(2): 14-32
International experience suggests that attempts to rapidly expand formal safety net coverage through cash transfers typically founder in low income countries, which must look to alternative mechanisms to boost social protection. This paper explores this challenge through the case of Vietnam. Despite over a decade of rapid economic growth and poverty reduction, approximately 40% of Vietnam’s population is below or just above the poverty line and is highly vulnerable to community-wide and household-specific shocks. Yet Vietnam’s social protection budget has largely financed formal entitlement programs that are failing to deliver substantial reductions in vulnerability for this broad spectrum of the rural population. This paper outlines the state of social protection in Vietnam and presents an agenda for improving effective coverage rates. It closes by assessing the political and bureaucratic feasibility of social protection reforms in other developing countries.
What influences government adoption of new vaccines in developing countries? A policy process approach.
Social Science & Medicine 65: 1751-1764.
Munira, S.L., Fritzen, S.
This paper proposes a framework for examining the process by which
government consideration and adoption of new vaccines takes place, with specific reference to developing country settings. The cases of early hepatitis B vaccine adoption in Taiwan and Thailand are used to explore the relevance of explanatory factors identified in the literature as well as the need to go beyond a variablecentric focus by highlighting the role of policy context and process in determining the pace and extent of adoption. The cases suggest the feasibility and importance of modeling ‘causal diversity’ – the complex set of necessary and sufficient conditions leading to particular decisional outcomes – in a broad range of country contexts. A better understanding of the lenses through which government decision makers filter information, and of the arenas in which critical decisions are shaped and taken, may assist both analysts (in predicting institutionalization of new vaccines) and advocates (in crafting targeted strategies to accelerate their diffusion).
The public is plural: Local governments in public-private partnerships
Policy & Society
Fritzen, Scott. and S. Basu
IESP Brief: Public Funding for After-School Programs 1998-2008
Weinstein, M., Calabrese, T.
The authors of this policy brief document that in the decade since the Open Society Institute awarded a challenge grant to TASC to encourage the creation of sustainable public funding streams for after-school programs, every level of government has dramatically increased public funding for comprehensive after-school programs in New York City.
The authors note that the City of New York has contributed an increasingly larger share of public support since the city launched its Out-of-School Time Initiative to provide kids with academic, cultural and recreational activities after school and during summers. The authors estimate that eight times more kids in kindergarten through high school attend after-school programs today than in 1998. "Over the past ten years in New York City," they conclude, "public support for after-school programs has become one of the foundations of service for children and youth."
Public Pensions, Public Budgets, and the Risks of Pension Obligation Bonds
Society of Actuaries, Public Pension Finance Symposium
Budgeting is the core financial task in subnational governments. Although limited research has outlined the relationship between the annual operating budget and public pension funds, the existing literature has not considered the manner in which financial resources are measured within government budgets, how this measurement of resources might affect public budget decisions, and how the interaction of the budget with the actuarial model can lead public budget managers to engage in financially damaging transactions such as pension obligation bonds. This paper fills this void, and argues that the short-term nature of public budgeting coupled with the actuarial model's use of expected investment returns rather than a market discount rate for pension liability measurement causes governments to shift risk to future generations. This paper also recommends that a blended discount rate for pension liabilities be considered more appropriate when governments fund their annual pension expenditures using debt rather than equity (such as tax revenues).
Pension Obligation Bonds: Financial Crisis Exposes Risks (Brief Number 9 in State and Local Pension Plans Series ed.)
Center for Retirement Research at Boston College
Munnell, A., Calabrese, T., Monk, A., Aubry, J.-P
The brief’s key findings are:
- Some state and local governments issue Pension Obligation Bonds (POBs) to raise cash to cover their required pension contributions.
- POBs allow governments to avoid increasing taxes in bad times and could reduce pension costs, but they pose considerable risks.
- Those who issue POBs are often fiscally stressed and not well-positioned to handle the investment risk.
A Complex(ity) Strategy for Breaking the Environmental Logjam (with David R. Johnson), in Breaking the LogJam: An Environmental Law for the 21st Century
NYU Environ. L. Rev. (Fall 2008)
Noveck, Beth (selected chapters)
In this essay, we explore how the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) might use technology to improve the agency's level of scientific expertise and to obtain useful information sooner to inform EPA policymaking. By creating a self-reinforcing collaboration between government and networked publics, new web-based tools could help produce change within government and without - namely governmental decisions informed by better data obtained through citizen participation and civic action coordinated with governmental priorities. The agency has the opportunity to help break the logjam of environmental policymaking by developing transparent and participatory mechanisms for expert citizen participation. The key insight is not to throw open the floodgates to undifferentiated public input, but to design group-based processes that enable online communities to collaborate on finding and vetting information for agencies.
The Networked State
Harvard University Press
Noveck, Beth Simone
How to make the world a better place: 116 ways you can make a difference
New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1995
Hollender, Jeffrey and Linda Catling.
Think of all the problems in the world, in the city or town where you live, on your own block: pollution, violence, children who can't read, housebound elderly people, litter in the street, the homeless. If only somebody would do something about these things. . . . Why not you? Why not now?
You don't need to be a high-profile social activist to effect positive social change. How to Make the World a Better Place, in this updated and expanded edition, shows how just one person can make a difference in solving global, national, and local problems. Whether you're interested in feeding the hungry, protecting the environment, helping the homeless, or making your community a safer place to live, you'll find the means to get started in this book. Each chapter alerts you to problems that require attention, explains the issues and what has to be done about them, tells you specifically what you can do to help, and lists the addresses and phone numbers of organizations that you can contact.
The twenty-fifth anniversary of Earth Day finds us all more socially and environmentally conscious than ever before. All it takes for you to make a difference is one first step-this book gives you the advice, the encouragement, the information, and the resources you need to take it. Then, instead of simply thinking about the world's problems, you'll be solving them.
What matters most: how a small group of pioneers is teaching social responsibility to big business, and why big business is listening
New York: Basic Books (a member of the Perseus Books Group), 2004.
Hollender, Jeffrey and Stephen Fenichell.
For more than sixteen years, Jeffrey Hollender has presided over Seventh Generation, a world leader in manufacturing environmentally friendly, nontoxic household products. What Matters Most illuminates the successful practices of Seventh Generation-and many other pioneering companies around the world-to demonstrate the pragmatic aspects of a corporate strategy that hardwires social and environmental concerns into the company's culture, operating systems, and business relationships. It shows business leaders how to assess their own company's performance, adopt a socially responsible approach to doing business, and embark on a path of long-term growth.
The Responsibility Revolution: How the Next Generation of Businesses Will Win
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2010. Print.
Hollender, Jeffrey and Bill Breen.
How to create a company that not only sustains, but surpasses-that moves beyond the imperative to be "less bad" and embrace an ethos to be "all good"
From the Inspired Protagonist and Chairman of Seventh Generation, the country's leading brand of household products and a pioneering "good company," comes a one-of-a-kind book for leaders, entrepreneurs, and change agents everywhere. The Responsibility Revolution reveals the smartest ways for companies to build a better future-and hold themselves accountable for the results. Thousands of companies have pledged to act responsibly; very few have proven that they know how. This book will guide them. The Responsibility Revolution presents fresh ideas and actionable strategies to commit your company to a genuine socially and environmentally responsible business and culture, one that not only competes but wins on values.
- Points the way for innovators and influencers to generate trust by becoming transparent, elicit people's passion and creativity, turn customers into collaborators, transform critics into allies, rewrite the rules and reinvent business
- Shows how to build a socially and environmentally responsible yet genuinely good company and an authentic brand
- Drawing on groundbreaking interviews with real-world change leaders, Hollender and Breen present lessons and insights from the "good company"' parts of big companies like IBM and eBay, trailblazers like Patagonia and Timberland, and emerging dynamos like Linden Lab and Etsy
The Responsibility Revolution equips people with the tactics, models, and mind-sets they need to compete in a world where consumers now demand that companies contribute to the greater good.
Growing Older in Hong Kong, New York and London
The Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust. Hong Kong, 2012.
P. Chau, J. Woo, M. Gusmano, D. Weisz, and Rodwin, V.
Declining birth rates, increasing longevity and urbanization have created a new challenge for cities: how to respond to an ageing population. Although population ageing and urbanization are not new concerns for national governments around the world, the consequences of these trends for quality of life in cities has only recently started to receive attention from policy makers and researchers. Few comparative studies of world cities examine their health or long-term care systems; nor have comparisons of national systems for the provision of long-term care focused on cities, let alone world cities.
By extending the work of the CADENZA and World Cities Projects , this report investigates how three world cities -- Hong Kong, New York and London -- are coping with this challenge. These world cities are centers of finance, information, media, arts, education, specialized legal services and advanced business services, and contribute disproportionate shares of GDP to their national economies. But are these influential centers prepared to meet the challenge posed by the “revolution of longevity?” How will these world cities accommodate this revolutionary demographic change? Are they prepared to implement the health and social policy innovations that may be required to serve their residents, both old and young? Will they be able to identify the new opportunities that increased longevity may offer? Can they learn from one another as they seek to develop creative solutions to the myriad issues that arise? Finally, can other cities learn from the experience of these three cities as they confront this challenge?
To address these questions, we examine comparable data on the economic and health status of older persons, as well as the availability and use of health, social and long-term care across and within these cities. In the report “How Well Are Seniors in Hong Kong Doing? An International Comparison”, a first attempt was made to compare the situation in Hong Kong with five economically developed countries. This report extends this study by comparing the situation in Hong Kong with two other world cities—New York City and London, which are more comparable in terms of population size and economic characteristics.
Beyond Entitlement: The Social Obligations of Citizenship
Free Press, 1986.
Mead, Lawrence M.