Hidden Talent: Skill Formation and Labor Market Incorporation of Latino Immigrants in the United States
Environment and Planning A
Lowe, N., Hagan, J. & Iskander, N.
This article examines informal training and skill development pathways of Latino immigrant construction workers in two different urban labor markets: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina. We find that institutional differences across local labor markets not only shape how immigrants develop skills in specific places but also determine the localized obstacles they face in demonstrating and harnessing these skills for employment. To explain the role of local institutions in shaping differences in skill development experience and opportunities, we draw on the concept of tacit skill, a term that is rarely incorporated into studies of the labor market participation of less educated immigrants. We argue that innovative pathways that Latino immigrant workers have created to develop tacit skill can strengthen advocacy planning efforts aimed at improving employment opportunities and working conditions for marginalized workers, immigrant and nonimmigrant alike.
Diaspora Networks for National Infrastructure: Rural Morocco, 1985-2005
In J. Brikenhoff ed. Diasporas and Development: Exploring the Potential. Washington, D. C. : Lynne Reider
Portraying the City in Early Modern Europe: Measurement, Representation and Planning
The History of Cartography, vol. 3, Cartography in the European Renaissance, Part 1, ed. David Woodward. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 680-705
Ballon, H. & Friedman, D.
Urban Design in Action
The Lindsay Years, ed. Sam Roberts.
Robert Moses and the Modern City: The Transformation of New York
Ballon, H. & Jackson, K.T. eds.
"We are rebuilding New York, not dispersing and abandoning it": Robert Moses saw himself on a rescue mission to save the city from obsolescence, decentralization, and decline. His vast building program aimed to modernize urban infrastructure, expand the public realm with extensive recreational facilities, remove blight, and make the city more livable for the middle class. This book offers a fresh look at the physical transformation of New York during Moses’s nearly forty-year reign over city building from 1934 to 1968. It is hard to imagine that anyone will ever have the same impact on New York as did Robert Moses. In his various roles in city and state government, he reshaped the fabric of the city, and his legacy continues to touch the lives of all New Yorkers. Revered for most of his life, he is now one of the most controversial figures in the city’s history. Robert Moses and the Modern City is the first major publication devoted to him since Robert Caro’s damning 1974 biography, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. In these pages eight short essays by leading scholars of urban history provide a revised perspective; stunning new photographs offer the first visual record of Moses’s far-reaching building program as it stands today; and a comprehensive catalog of his works is illustrated with a wealth of archival records: photographs of buildings, neighborhoods, and landscapes, of parks, pools, and playgrounds, of demolished neighborhoods and replacement housing and urban renewal projects, of bridges and highways; renderings of rejected designs and controversial projects that were defeated; and views of spectacular models that have not been seen since Moses made them for promotional purposes. Robert Moses and the Modern City captures research undertaken in the last three decades and will stimulate a new round of debate.
Evidence-Based Management in Healthcare
Chicago: Health Administration Press,
Kovner, A.R., Fine, D.R. & D'Aquila, R.
Too often in the fast-moving healthcare field, decision makers rely primarily on what has worked before. Evidence-Based Management in Healthcare explains how healthcare leaders can move from making educated guesses to using the best available information to make decisions.
Learn what evidence-based management (EB management) is and how it can focus thinking and clarify the issues surrounding a decision. The book provides a straightforward process for asking the right questions, gathering supporting information from various sources, evaluating the information, and applying it to solve management challenges.
Numerous real-life examples illustrate how the EB management approach is used in a variety of situations, from inpatient bed planning to operating room scheduling to leadership development. These examples also demonstrate the potential costs and benefits of EB management.
Assessment of the Transfer Penalty for Transit Trips: A GIS-based Disaggregate Modeling Approach
Transportation Research Record, Vol.1872, pp.10-18
Guo, Z. & Wilson, N.H.M.
Transit riders negatively perceive transfers because of their inconvenience, often referred to as a transfer penalty. Understanding what affects the transfer penalty can have significant implications for a transit authority and also lead to potential improvements in ridership forecasting models. A new method was developed to assess the transfer penalty on the basis of onboard survey data, a partial path choice model, and geographic information system techniques. This approach was applied to the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA)subway system in downtown Boston. The new method improves the estimates of the transfer penalty, reduces the complexity of data processing, and improves the overall understanding of the perception of transfers.
Does the Built Environment Affect the Utility of Walking? A Case of Path Choice in Downtown Boston.
Transportation Research D: Transport and Environment, Vol. 14, pp. 343-352
There is a lack of consensus as to whether the relationship between the built environment and travel is causal and, if it is, the extent of this causality. This problem is largely caused by inappropriate research designs adopted in many studies. This paper proposes a new method (based on path choice) to investigate the causal effect of the pedestrian environment on the utility of walking. Specifically, the paper examines how the pedestrian environment affects subway commuters' egress path choice from a station to their workplaces in downtown Boston. The path-based measure is sensitive enough to capture minor differences in the environment experienced by pedestrians. More importantly, path
choice is less likely to correlate with job and housing location choices, and therefore largely avoids the self-selection problem. The results suggest that the pedestrian environment can significantly affect a person's walking experience and the utility of walking along a path.
Evaluating Environmental and Economic Benefits of Yellow-Dust Storm Related Policies in Northern China
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, Vol. 15, pp. 457-470
Guo, Z. & Ning, A., Ploenske, K.R.
Yellow-dust storms (YDSs) have attracted increasing attention worldwide in the past decade. They can extensively disrupt socioeconomic activities and pose hazards to ecosystems, as well as human health. In recent years, China has invested multi-billions of dollars to mitigate the impact of YDSs. However, the effectiveness of such YDS-control programs has rarely been evaluated. This research develops a causal model to quantify the environmental benefits of YDS-control programs in China, and further employs regional economic models to evaluate the ensuing economic impacts. The economic benefits generated from the YDS-control programs have remained stable across the years, primarily because of the multiplier effect of the investments, while the environmental benefits tend to decline over time. Our results suggest that YDS-control programs should consider stimulating local economic activities in addition to environmental goals in order to be cost-effective and sustainable in the long term.
Infrastructure Disruptions and Recovery Rates in Disasters
ASCE Metropolitan Section Infrastructure Group Technical Seminar "New York City Infrastructure Critical Needs," Polytechnic University, March 24-25, pp. 28-35.
Zimmerman, R., Restrepo, C. & Simonoff, J.S.
Distribution of Federal Anti-Terrorism Funds in the United States: a Comparison of Data-Driven Approaches Based on Electric Power Generation
Terrorism Issues: Threat Assessment, Consequences and Prevention. Edited by F. Columbus. Hauppauge. NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Greenberg, M. & Zimmerman, R.
Transportation Density and Opportunities for Expediting Recovery to Promote Security
Journal of Applied Security Research, Vol. 4, No. 1.
Zimmerman, R. & Simonoff, J.S.
Analysis of Electrical Power and Oil and Gas Pipeline Failures
Critical Infrastructure Protection, edited by E.D. Goetz and S. Shenoi. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 381-394.
Simonoff, J.S., Restrepo, C., Zimmerman, R. & Naphtali, Z.
This paper examines the spatial and temporal distribution of failures in three critical infrastructure systems in the United States: the electrical power grid, hazardous liquids (including oil) pipelines, and natural gas pipelines. The analyses are carried out at the state level, though the analytical frameworks are applicable to other geographic areas and infrastructure types. The paper also discusses how understanding the spatial distribution of these failures can be used as an input into risk management policies to improve the performance of these systems, as well as for security and natural hazards mitigation.
Making the Most of Our Parks
Citizens Budget Commission, June(Separate Summary document released September 2007).
Brecher, C. & Wise, O.
Parks play important roles in city life. They are a source of respite from the bustle of the urban environment, a place for active recreation and exercise for adults, and a safe place for children to play outdoors. In addition, parks preserve sensitive environmental areas, and, by making neighborhoods more attractive, enhance property values and the tax base of the city.
A Prescription for Getting the MTA on the Right Fiscal Track
The Stamford Review, Fall, pp. 27-24.
Brecher, C. & Mustovic, S.
Typically when an asset is acquired it is assigned a "useful life" representing the amount of time it can be expected to stay in use. Then a fraction of the asset's purchase price, equal to one year of its "useful life," is counted as an annual expenditure called depreciation. The MTA's depreciation schedules are based upon estimated useful lives of 25 to 50 years for buildings, two to 40 years for equipment, and 25 to 100 years for infrastructure. Most subway cars are depreciated over 30 years and buses over 12 years. Setting aside money equal to the value of depreciation, known as "funding depreciation," is a way of ensuring that an organization has adequate capital to replace assets at the end of their useful life. In contrast, failing to fund depreciation enables an organization to meet its cash expenses each year without having a budget that is balanced under generally accepted accounting principles. However, the adverse consequence of this practice is a shortage of capital and a resulting need to borrow in order to replace depreciated assets. This is the path the MTA routinely takes.
Reinventing the Central City as a Place to Live and Work
Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 8, Issue 2.
Moss, M. L.
Public policies for urban development have traditionally emphasized investment in physical infrastructure, the development of large-scale commercial facilities, the construction of new housing, and the renewal of existing neighborhoods. Most efforts to revitalize central cities by building new facilities for visitors have focused on suburban commuters and tourists. At the same time, many housing initiatives in central cities have concentrated on low-income communities because outlying suburban areas have attracted traditional middle-income households.
This article argues that emerging demographic and cultural trends - combined with changes in the structure of business organizations and technological advances - provide new opportunities for cities to retain and attract middle-class households. Using gay and lesbian populations as an example, it focuses on the role that nontraditional households can play in urban redevelopment. In light of the rise of nontraditional households and the growth of self-employment and small businesses, cities should adopt policies that make them attractive places in which to live and work.
Danger Ahead! How to Balance the MTA’s Budget
Citizens Budget Commission, June
Despite its essential role in sustaining the New York economy, the MTA is not financed in a consistent or sensible
manner. Specifically, the financing arrangements for the MTA result in:
Problem 1: Repeated operating deficits.
Problem 2: Capital investments insufficient to bring its facilities to a state of good repair.
In order for New York to maintain a strong and vibrant economy, its transportation system has to be kept up to par and expanded to meet future needs. This report examines the two problems and suggests alternative financing policies for the MTA that would balance its operating budget and provide sufficient capital to accelerate the pace at which its facilities are brought to a state of good repair.
The next section describes the vital role of the MTA in transporting people to their jobs in New York's central business district. The following sections explain the MTA's problems identified above, present the CBC's guidelines for funding the MTA services in the future, and estimate the agency's expenditure and revenue requirements under those guidelines. The final section deals with options for meeting revenue requirements by increasing cross subsides from auto users.
Final Report for the NY Statewide Transportation Master Plan/ Early Outreach Session Reports
Prepared for the NYS Department of Transportation. January .
Meta-analysis in Environmental Epidemiology
Risk Science Institute of the International Life Sciences Institute, Washington, D.C., January .
Zimmerman, R., et al.
Final Report Based on the Workshop on Integrated Research for Civil Infrastructure
New York, NY: New York University, Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, February .
Zimmerman, R., et al.
The nation continues to experience major problems in the performance of its infrastructure in spite of the considerable investment of resources to expand capacity, increase accessibility, and exploit innovative technologies for infrastructure improvement. Some problems can be solved with incremental changes that retain the current specialized and categorical organization of infrastructure endeavors. Others, however, require a broad, sweeping, interdisciplinary perspective. Problems in this latter group may require the interaction of the sciences with engineering to address a materials problem, to identify statistical trends in performance, or to understand the environmental impacts of the design, construction or operation of a facility.