Issues of Climate Change and Its Impacts on the Infrastructure in the Metro East Coast (MEC) Region of the US
Report of the MEC Infrastructure Working Group, Columbia University, March .
Jacob, K. & Zimmerman, R.
The infrastructure of the Metro East Coast region (MEC, with New York City at its core) is the largest, oldest, densest, and busiest in the nation. It serves some 20 million people and built assets exceed $1 trillion. Currently there is considerable stress on the system with key problems identified as: undercapacity, underinvestment, inconsistent management suburban sprawl, and lack of long-term integrated region-wide planning. These problems are exacerbated by fragmentation of governance across competing jurisdictions. Unclear funding mechanisms, spotty economic performance, and deferred infrastructure maintenance are severe stress factors. Spatial and functional inter-connectedness between different types of infrastructure allows failures to cascade through the system - at times even shutting down substantial segments, all at a high societal cost. A special problem is lack of a farsighted solid waste management strategy. Despite these severe stresses, the system somehow manages to deliver essential services to a large population.
Farm Operator Perceptions of Water Quality Protective Pest Management Practices: Selected Survey Findings
Environmental Challenges: The Next 20 Years, National Association of Environmental Professionals 20th Annual Conference Proceedings. Washington, D.C.: NAEP. Pp. 780-785.
Zimmerman, R. & Lichtenberg, E.
Integrating Environmental Justice (EJ) Methodologies into Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Challenges: The Next 20 Years, National Association of Environmental Professionals 20th Annual Conference Proceedings. Washington, D.C.: NAEP.
Analysis of Electrical Power and Oil and Gas Pipeline Failures
Critical Infrastructure Protection: Issues and Solutions. Edited by Goetz, E.D. and S. Shenoi. New York, NY: Springer,
Simonoff, J.S., Restrepo, C., Zimmerman, R. & Naphtali, Z.
Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Assessment. Edited by B. Everitt and E. Melnick. John Wiley Publishers. New York, NY,
Restrepo, C. & Zimmerman, R.
Quantitative risk assessment is a growing, important component of the larger field of risk assessment. The need to understand the risks of an activity, be it economic, environmental, public health/biomedical, or even based on terrorist or other hazardous impacts, has led to a number of methods of analysis for many different application scenarios. Indeed, all major areas of the larger endeavor - hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization - rely on and benefit from quantitative operations. Within these contexts, enhanced understanding of both the variability and the uncertainty inherent in the risk identification process is critically dependent upon proper implementation of appropriate statistical methodologies.
Managing Infrastructure Resiliency, Safety and Security
Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Assessment. Edited by B. Everitt and E. Melnick. John Wiley Publishers. New York, NY.
The World Bank and Social Capital: Lessons from Ten Rural Development Projects in the Philippines and Mexico
Policy Sciences, Vol. 33 Issue 3/4, p399-419, 21p.
Fox, J. & Gershman, J.
Compares rural development projects funded by the World Bank in the Philippines and Mexico. Impact of the World Bank on social capital; Indicators of institutional preconditions for informed public participation; Ethnic and gender dimensions of social capital.
Disentangling the Racial Test Score Gap: Probing the Evidence in a Large Urban School District
Journal of Policy Analysis & Management, Winter 2007, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p7-30, 24p.
Stiefel, L., Schwartz, A.E. & Ellen, I.G.
We examine the size and distribution of the gap in test scores across races within New York City public schools and the factors that explain these gaps. While gaps are partially explained by differences in student characteristics, such as poverty, differences in schools attended are also important. At the same time, substantial within-school gaps remain and are only partly explained by differences in academic preparation across students from different race groups. Controlling for differences in classrooms attended explains little of the remaining gap, suggesting little role for within-school inequities in resources. There is some evidence that school characteristics matter. Race gaps are negatively correlated with school size-implying small schools may be helpful. In addition, the trade-off between the size and experience of the teaching staff in urban schools may carry unintended consequences for within-school race gaps. © 2006 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.
Infrastructure in a structural model of economic growth
Regional Science & Urban Economics, April, Vol. 25 Issue 2, p131, 21p.
Holtz-Eakin, D. & Schwartz, A.E.
Proposes a neoclassical economic growth model to show the connection between infrastructure and productivity growth. Model as a framework for analyzing the empirical importance of public capital accumulation to productivity growth in the United States between 1971 and 1986; Characteristics of the growth path toward the steady state; Econometric implications.
What Do Business Improvement Districts Do for Property Owners?
Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Taxation, p431-437, 7p
Schwartz, A.E., Ellen, I.G. & Meltzer, R.
The article discusses the implication of business improvement districts (BIDS) to property owners in the U.S. The scheme first arrived in the country in mid-1970s when urban centers were losing both residents and businesses to suburbs. Such scheme is beneficial to companies because it delivers fair basic services such as security, maintenance, marketing and capital improvements.
Spatial effects upon employment of outcomes: The case of New Jersey teenagers
New England Economic Review, May/Jun 1996, p41, 18p, 16 charts
O'Regan, K. & Quigley, J.M.
Provides tests of the relative importance of spatial factors on employment outcomes of teenagers in the United States. Relations between youth employment probabilities to individuals and family characteristics; Sources of statistical problems in the interpretation of findings about youth employment; Concerns on the youth's choice of neighborhood.
Teenage Employment and the Spatial Isolation of Minority and Poverty Households
Journal of Human Resources, Summer 1996, Vol. 31 Issue 3, p692-702, 11p, 3 charts
O'Regan, K. & Quigley, J.M.
This paper tests the importance of the spatial isolation of minority and poverty households for youth employment in large metropolitan areas. We estimate a model relating youth employment probabilities to individual and family characteristics, race, and metropolitan location. We then investigate the determinants of the systematic differences in employment probabilities by race and metropolitan area. A substantial fraction of differences in youth employment can be attributed to the isolation of minorities and poor households. Minority youth residing in more segregated cities or cities in which minorities have less contact with nonpoor households have lower employment probabilities than otherwise comparable youth. Simulations suggest that these spatial effects explain a substantial fraction of the existing differences in youth employment rates by race.
The Internet Backbone and the American Metropolis
Information Society, Jan-March, Vol. 16 Issue 1, p35-47, 13p.
Moss, M. L. & Townsend, A.
Despite the rapid growth of advanced telecommunications services, there is a lack of knowledge about the geographic diffusion of these new technologies. The Internet presents an important challenge to communications researchers, as it threatens to redefine the production and delivery of vital services including finance, retailing, and education. This article seeks to address the gap in the current literature by analyzing the development of Internet backbone networks in the United States between 1997 and 1999. We focus upon the intermetropolitan links that have provided transcontinental data transport services since the demise of the federally subsidized networks deployed in the 1970s and 1980s. We find that a select group of seven highly interconnected metropolitan areas consistently dominated the geography of national data networks, despite massive investment in this infrastructure over the study period. Furthermore, while prosperous and internationally oriented American cities lead the nation in adopting and deploying Internet technologies, interior regions and economically distressed cities have failed to keep up. As information-based industries and services account for an increasing share of economic activity, this evidence suggests that the Internet may aggravate the economic disparities among regions, rather than level them. Although the capacity of the backbone system has slowly diffused throughout the metropolitan system, the geographic structure of interconnecting links has changed little. Finally, the continued persistence of the metropolis as the center for telecommunications networks illustrates the need for a more sophisticated understanding of the interaction between societies and technological innovations.
New York City: IN THE 21st CENTURY
Economic Development Journal, Spring 2006, Vol. 5 Issue 2, p7-16, 10p.
Moss, M. L.
The article reflects on the role of New York City in the 21st century which includes bringing people together with other people to generate the information and products that are then sold around the world. It also presents a brief history of the city in becoming a leading city in the global economy. It also discusses the economic and technological innovations the city had undertaken to become a leading city and the reforms it is planning to implement to maintain its status.
A Variant of the Shift and Share Projection Formulation
Journal of Regional Science, April 1975, Vol. 15, Issue 1, p29-39, 10p.
Examines variance of the shift and share projection formulation. Use of the shift share method in explaining historical trends in regional employment; Examination of the predictive power of the variant against the standard formulation; Evaluation of alternative projection methods for industries grouped into local market and supply-oriented categories.
Formation of New Organizations to Manage Risk
Policy Studies Review, 1982, Vol. 1 Issue 4, p736-747, 12p.
Zimmerman, R. T.
Examines ways in which organizations adapt to changing risk assessments in the U.S. through the development of organizational forms during times of crisis. Emergence of institutional conflict in setting risk standards; Organization adaptation to high risk environments; Patterns for the formation of organizations; Differences and conflicts among administrative agencies involved in risk management.
The Relationship of Emergency Management to Governmental Policies on Man-Made Technological Disasters
Public Administration Review, Jan 1985, Vol. 45 Issue Special, p29-39, 11p.
Examines the relationship between emergency management and governmental policies on technological disasters. Exploration of whether or not disasters exist from man-made technologies involving hazardous materials and what mechanisms are currently in place to cope with such emergencies; Review of incidents involving environmental contamination; Regulations in place to deal with contaminations; Conclusion that laws have become powerful tools for detecting and mitigating against environmental problems.
Notes from the Field: Jumpstarting the IRB Approval Process in Multicenter Studies
Health Services Research, Volume 42, Number 4, August 2007 , pp. 1773-1782(10) Blackwell Publishing.
Blustein, J., Regenstein, M., Seigel, B. & Billings, J.
Objective. To identify strategies that facilitate readiness for local Institutional Review Board (IRB) review, in multicenter studies.
Study Setting. Eleven acute care hospitals, as they applied to participate in a foundation-sponsored quality improvement collaborative.
Study Design. Case series.
Data Collection/Extraction. Participant observation, supplemented with review of written and oral communications.
Principal Findings. Applicant hospitals responded positively to efforts to engage them in early planning for the IRB review process. Strategies that were particularly effective were the provisions of application templates, a modular approach to study description, and reliance on conference calls to collectively engage prospective investigators, local IRB members, and the evaluation/national program office teams. Together, these strategies allowed early identification of problems, clarification of intent, and relatively timely completion of the local IRB review process, once hospitals were selected to participate in the learning collaborative.
Conclusions. Engaging potential collaborators in planning for IRB review may help expedite and facilitate review, without compromising the fairness of the grant-making process or the integrity of human subjects protection.
The New York Transportation Journal
Spring 2007, Vol. 10, No. 3.
de Cerreño, A.L.C., Publisher, Sterman, B.P., Editor, Nguyen-Novotny, M.L.H., Assistant Editor.
In this issue of the Journal, Bruce Schaller, a former Rudin Center Visiting Scholar and Practitioner, shares some astute observations on Mayor Bloomberg's recent announcement on congestion pricing and what it means for New York City. Also included are articles on recent Public-Private partnerships ”The Indiana Toll Road and the Chicago Skyway” written by Joseph Seliga of Mayer, Brown, Rowe & Maw LLP in Chicago; and the Bay Area TransLink Smart Card, written by Nathan Gilbertson of the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. In addition, Howard Mann of NYMTC provides a timely discussion of the challenges of growth and freight in the region in light of the Rudin Center's upcoming conference on freight, "Delivering the Goods: The Freight Needs of a Growing Population" on June 6, 2007.
Heterosexual couples confronting the challenges of HIV infection
AIDS Care 1999; 11(2): 181-193.
Van Devanter, N., Thacker, A.S., Bass, G. & Arnold, M.
Couples confronted with HIV infection face significant challenges. Little is known about the impact of HIV on heterosexual couples who account for the vast majority of cases worldwide and an increasing proportion of cases in the USA, especially among women. In this study, analysis of data collected on HIV-discordant couples participating in a ten-week support group revealed four major groups of issues: (1) dealing with the emotional and sexual impact on the relationship; (2) confronting reproductive decisions; (3) planning for the future of children and the surviving partner; and (4) disclosure of the HIV infection to friends and family. These findings have implications for the design of interventions to enhance adaptation to HIV for discordant couples.