Sonia M. Ospina

Sonia M. Ospina
Professor of Public Management and Policy

Sonia M. Ospina is Professor of Public Management and Policy in the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University. She is also co-founder and Faculty Co-Director of the Wagner affiliated Research Center for Leadership in Action (RCLA). She has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters in Public Policy and Management from the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

 

A sociologist by training, she applies organization and management theories to public problem solving and governance, in the United States and in Latin America. These interests are reflected in three areas of scholarship: leadership and social transformation (exploring the civil society side of governance); change in public management systems (exploring the State side of governance); and the craft of qualitative research (exploring research solutions to studying these areas and their intersections). She is the author of numerous referred journal articles and book chapters on these areas, and has produced six books, among them, Illusions of Opportunity: Employee Expectations and Workplace Inequality (1996), Results-oriented Evaluation for a Modern and Democratic Public Management: Latin American Experiences(2003, in Spanish; co-authored), and Advancing Relational Leadership Research: A Conversation Across Perspectives (2012, co-edited).

 

Over the past decade, Professor Ospina directed a Ford Foundation-sponsored multi-year, national research project, partnering with 92 social change organizations in the United States to study their leadership and contributions to democracy. Using traditional and participatory research, this work yielded practitioner booklets and pedagogical materials, as well as peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, including a co-edited book on relational leadership, and another, in process, on social change leadership in the nonprofit sector. During this time Ospina also explored governance and accountability issues associated with public management reform in Latin America, using comparative research methods to study the institutionalization of national public management evaluation systems.

 

Before leading RCLA, Professor Ospina also participated in the leadership of the Wagner School, directing its Doctoral Program and its Management Specialization. She has been the President of the Inter-American Network of Public Administration Education (INPAE), and a member of the Executive Boards of the Association of Public Policy and Management (APPAM) and the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (NASPAA).  She sits in several international boards on public management and higher education in various Latin American countries and was recently elected Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration in the United States.

 

Presently, she is co-editor of the Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory (JPART), co-editor of the book review section of Public Administration Review (PAR), and member of the editorial board of several other academic journals, including four in Latin America.

Semester Course
Spring 2014 PADM-GP.2186.001 Leadership and Social Transformation

This course is appropriate for students interested in the role that leadership plays in advancing social innovation and social change in the context of democratic governance.

The course explores the role of leadership in organizational efforts to change thinking, systems, and policies—taking into consideration the contested process by which the responsibility of addressing intractable problems is distributed among key diverse actors in a shared-power world. Traditional approaches to leadership defined by single heroic individuals who influence followers are contrasted with new perspectives—consistent with the demands of today’s complex problems—particularly when we aspire to inclusive, transparent and democratic solutions. Emergent perspectives reveal leadership as the collective achievement of members of a group who share a vision, and who must navigate the constellation of relationships, structures, processes and institutional dynamics within the larger system in which they are embedded.

The course will focus primarily on the organizational level of action, but connections to the individual and policy levels will also be explored. An opportunity to apply course concepts in the context of a particular organization of the student’s choice (with instructor approval) will deepen and personalize the student’s understanding of the interconnections between the three levels of action, and challenge assumptions about leadership and social change and their implications for practice.


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Summer 2013 PADM-GP.2430.001 Multi-Sector Partnerships: A Comparative Perspective

New Albert Course Number: PADM-GP 2430

Any resolution of today's complex social problems must incorporate the perspectives of both the public and private sectors. Yet distinct assumptions, work styles, and disciplinary backgrounds of actors in each domain make collaborative work difficult, particularly when leaders do not have the skills and competencies to connect in ways that bridge the gap. Incorporating literature, cases, guest speakers and problem-based learning exercises, the course offers a structure for sustained cycles of dialogue around examples of formal collaborations between the public, nonprofit and private sectors from several countries around the world. The course encourages students to consider the assumptions of stakeholders from each sector, to clarify and challenge their own assumptions and to explore the opportunities and challenges associated with cross-sector collaboration through the lens of evidence-based knowledge of this phenomenon.


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Fall 2012 PADM-GP.2125.001 Foundations of Nonprofit Management

This course examines the nature and major trends of the nonprofit sector, understood within the context of a broad shift in governance, both in the US and internationally. The course aims to deepen student understanding of the nature of the nonprofit world and its organizations, using both theoretical and practical lenses to do so. Understanding the legitimacy and authority of the nonprofit sector to address collective problems requires inviting both management and policy practitioners to see the intersection between managerial practices and policy decisions and to connect the macro and micro dynamics of governance.

The course focuses heavily on the broad trends shaping the sector, predominantly in the United States, but making connections to international trends. The goal is for students – whether they are interested in policy, finance or management – to develop their own “cognitive map” of the sector, so that they can identify and interpret key issues and challenges of sustainability experienced by stakeholders of the nonprofit world, and consider their implications for practice. Classes will involve a mix of brief lectures; discussion based on readings and written assignments; and guest speakers.


Download Syllabus
Summer 2012 PADM-GP.2430.001 Multi-Sector Partnerships: A Comparative Perspective

New Albert Course Number: PADM-GP 2430

Any resolution of today's complex social problems must incorporate the perspectives of both the public and private sectors. Yet distinct assumptions, work styles, and disciplinary backgrounds of actors in each domain make collaborative work difficult, particularly when leaders do not have the skills and competencies to connect in ways that bridge the gap. Incorporating literature, cases, guest speakers and problem-based learning exercises, the course offers a structure for sustained cycles of dialogue around examples of formal collaborations between the public, nonprofit and private sectors from several countries around the world. The course encourages students to consider the assumptions of stakeholders from each sector, to clarify and challenge their own assumptions and to explore the opportunities and challenges associated with cross-sector collaboration through the lens of evidence-based knowledge of this phenomenon.


Download Syllabus
Spring 2010 PADM-GP.2125.001 Foundations of Nonprofit Management

This course examines the nature and major trends of the nonprofit sector, understood within the context of a broad shift in governance, both in the US and internationally. The course aims to deepen student understanding of the nature of the nonprofit world and its organizations, using both theoretical and practical lenses to do so. Understanding the legitimacy and authority of the nonprofit sector to address collective problems requires inviting both management and policy practitioners to see the intersection between managerial practices and policy decisions and to connect the macro and micro dynamics of governance.

The course focuses heavily on the broad trends shaping the sector, predominantly in the United States, but making connections to international trends. The goal is for students – whether they are interested in policy, finance or management – to develop their own “cognitive map” of the sector, so that they can identify and interpret key issues and challenges of sustainability experienced by stakeholders of the nonprofit world, and consider their implications for practice. Classes will involve a mix of brief lectures; discussion based on readings and written assignments; and guest speakers.


Download Syllabus
Fall 2009 PADM-GP.2186.001 Leadership and Social Transformation

This course is appropriate for students interested in the role that leadership plays in advancing social innovation and social change in the context of democratic governance.

The course explores the role of leadership in organizational efforts to change thinking, systems, and policies—taking into consideration the contested process by which the responsibility of addressing intractable problems is distributed among key diverse actors in a shared-power world. Traditional approaches to leadership defined by single heroic individuals who influence followers are contrasted with new perspectives—consistent with the demands of today’s complex problems—particularly when we aspire to inclusive, transparent and democratic solutions. Emergent perspectives reveal leadership as the collective achievement of members of a group who share a vision, and who must navigate the constellation of relationships, structures, processes and institutional dynamics within the larger system in which they are embedded.

The course will focus primarily on the organizational level of action, but connections to the individual and policy levels will also be explored. An opportunity to apply course concepts in the context of a particular organization of the student’s choice (with instructor approval) will deepen and personalize the student’s understanding of the interconnections between the three levels of action, and challenge assumptions about leadership and social change and their implications for practice.


Download Syllabus
Spring 2009 PADM-GP.2125.001 Foundations of Nonprofit Management

This course examines the nature and major trends of the nonprofit sector, understood within the context of a broad shift in governance, both in the US and internationally. The course aims to deepen student understanding of the nature of the nonprofit world and its organizations, using both theoretical and practical lenses to do so. Understanding the legitimacy and authority of the nonprofit sector to address collective problems requires inviting both management and policy practitioners to see the intersection between managerial practices and policy decisions and to connect the macro and micro dynamics of governance.

The course focuses heavily on the broad trends shaping the sector, predominantly in the United States, but making connections to international trends. The goal is for students – whether they are interested in policy, finance or management – to develop their own “cognitive map” of the sector, so that they can identify and interpret key issues and challenges of sustainability experienced by stakeholders of the nonprofit world, and consider their implications for practice. Classes will involve a mix of brief lectures; discussion based on readings and written assignments; and guest speakers.


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Date Publication/Paper
2012

Ospina, Sonia and Mary Uhl-Bien eds. 2012. Advancing Relational Leadership Research: A Dialogue Among Perspectives Leadership Horizons Series, Information Age Publishing.
Abstract

Leaders and followers live in a relational world-a world in which leadership occurs in complex webs of relationships and dynamically changing contexts. Despite this, our theories of leadership are grounded in assumptions of individuality and linear causality. If we are to advance understandings of leadership that have more relevance to the world of practice, we need to embed issues of relationality into leadership studies. This volume addresses this issue by bringing together, for the first time, a set of prominent scholars from different paradigmatic and disciplinary perspectives to engage in dialogue regarding how to meet the challenges of relationality in leadership research and practice. Included are cutting edge thinking, heated debate, and passionate perspectives on the issues at hand. The chapters reveal the varied and nuanced treatments of relationality that come from authors' alternative paradigmatic (entity, constructionist, critical) views. Dialogue scholars-reacting to the chapters-engage in spirited debate regarding the commensurability (or incommensurability) of the paradigmatic approaches. The editors bring the dialogue together with introductory and concluding chapters that offer a framework for comparing and situating the competing assumptions and perspectives spanning the relational leadership landscape. Using paradigm interplay they unpack assumptions, and lay out a roadmap for relational leadership research. A key takeaway is that advancing relational leadership research requires multiple paradigmatic perspectives, and scholars who are conversant in the assumptions brought by these perspectives. The book is aimed at those who feel that much of current leadership thinking is missing the boat in today's complex, relational world. It provides an essential resource for all leadership scholars and practitioners curious about the nature of research on leadership, both those with much research exposure and those new to the field.

Ospina, S., Foldy, E. G., El Hadidy, W., Dodge, J., Hofmann-Pinilla, A., & Su, C. 2012. Social Change Leadership as Relational Leadership. In Social Change Leadership as Relational Leadership. In Uhl-Bien, M., and S. Ospina (eds.) Advancing Relational Leadership Theory. Information Age Publishers.
Abstract

Cunill-Grau, N., & Ospina, S. M. 2012. Performance Measurement and Evaluation Systems: Institutionalizing Accountability for Governmental Results in Latin America In S. Kushner & E. Rotondo (Eds.), Evaluation voices from Latin America. New Directions for Evaluation, 134, 77–91.
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Abstract

Results-based performance measurement and evaluation (PME) systems are part of a global current in public administration. In the Latin American context, this trend is also a reflection of the broader processes of reform of the latter half of the 20th century, including the modernization of public administration, as well as broad processes of decentralization and democratization, both of which are dimensions of development in Latin America, regardless of the political and ideological orientation of specific governments. This chapter documents the development of such evaluative approaches to organizational quality and raises some issues for further discussion.

2011

Ospina, S. 2011. Thinking Sociologically About Leadership In Research Companion to Leadership Studies: The Dialogue of Disciplines Eds., M. Harvey, R. Riggio. UK:Edward Elgar First Author with M. Hittleman
Abstract

Ospina, S. 2011. Popular Education In Political and Civic Leadership. Edr., R. Couto. Vol II. Thousand Oaks: Sage (Second Author with W. El Hadidy and A Hofman-Pinilla
Abstract

2010

Ospina, S. and E. G. Foldy 2010. Building Bridges from Margins: The Work of Leadership in Social Change Organizations The Leadership Quarterly  
Abstract

Attention to the relational dimensions of leadership represents a new frontier of leadership research and is an expression of the growing scholarly interest in the conditions that foster collective action within and across boundaries. This article explores the antecedents of collaboration from the perspective of social change organizations engaged in processes of collaborative governance. Using a constructionist lens, the study illuminates the question how do social change leaders secure the connectedness needed for collaborative work to advance their organization's mission? The article draws on data from a national, multi-year, multi-modal qualitative study of social change organizations and their leaders. These organizations represent disenfranchised communities which aspire to influence policy makers and other social actors to change the conditions that affect their members' lives. Narrative analysis of transcripts from in-depth interviews in 38 organizations yielded five leadership practices that foster strong relational bonds either within organizations or across boundaries with others. The article describes how these practices nurture interdependence either by forging new connections, strengthening existing ones, or capitalizing on strong ones.

Ospina, S. 2010. Paradox and Collaboration in Network Management. Administration and Society Administration & Society July 2, 2010 vol. 42 no. 4 404-440
Abstract

Qualitative evidence from action networks is used to answer the research question, How do leaders of successful networks manage collaboration challenges to make things happen? This study of two urban immigration coalitions in the United States found that their leaders developed practices as a response to two paradoxical requirements of network collaboration: managing unity and diversity when doing inward work and confrontation and dialogue when doing outward work. By illuminating how leaders responded to these complex demands inherent in action networks, the authors open up the black box of managing whole networks of organizations and underscore the role of leadership in interorganizational collaboration.

Ospina, S. 2010. The Behavioral Dimension of Governing Inter-Organizational Goal Directed Networks: Managing the Unity/Diversity Tension Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory Second Author with A. Saz-Carranza
Abstract

Network management research documents how network members engage in activities to advance their own goals. However, this literature offers little insight into the nature of work that aims to advance the goals of the network as a “whole.” By examining the behavioral dimension of network governance, this article identifies a specific tension that network leaders address to effectively govern networks: although unity and diversity are essential to network performance, each makes contradictory demands which require attention. Findings from four case studies of immigrant networks in the United States point to three activities representing mechanisms that staff of network administrative organizations use to address this (network level) managerial tension. The study proposes that unity versus diversity represents a distinct challenge to the governance of networks that requires strategic action at the whole-network level and merits further study.
2009

Ospina, S. 2009. Weaving Color Lines: Race, Ethnicity, and the Work of Leadership in Social Change Organizations Leadership, Vol 5, Issue 2, December 2009
Abstract

Ospina, S. and E. G. Foldy 2009. A critical Review of Race and Ethnicity in the Leadership Literature: Surfacing Context, Power and the Collective Dimensions of Leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 20  
Abstract


Leadership studies focusing on race–ethnicity provide particularly rich contexts to illuminate the human condition as it pertains to leadership. Yet insights about the leadership experience of people of color from context-rich research within education, communications and black studies remain marginal in the field. Our framework integrates these, categorizing reviewed studies according to the effects of race–ethnicity on perceptions of leadership, the effects of race–ethnicity on leadership enactments, and actors' approach to the social reality of race–ethnicity. The review reveals a gradual convergence of theories of leadership and theories of race–ethnicity as their relational dimensions are increasingly emphasized. A shift in the conceptualization of race–ethnicity in relation to leadership is reported, from a constraint to a personal resource to a simultaneous consideration of its constraining and liberating capacity. Concurrent shifts in the treatment of context, power, agency versus structure and causality are also explored, as are fertile areas for future research.

Ospina, S. 2009. Strengthening of Monitoring and Evaluation Systems in Latin America: Analysis of 12 Countries Portugese Translation of Spanish Original Venezzuela: Editorial Texto, C.A With N.Cunhill
Abstract

2008

Ospina, S. & Dodge, J. 2008. Narrative Inquiry Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, Second Edition pp 1285-1288
Abstract

Ospina, S. & Saz, A. 2008. Leadership in Inter-organizational Networks 21st Century Management:  A Reference Handbook, Volume 2, Sage:  Los Angeles, pp. 291-300
Abstract

Ospina, S., Dodge, J., Foldy, E.G. & Hofmann, A. 2008. Taking the action turn: Lessons from bringing participation to qualitative research Handbook of Action Research, 2nd Edition.  2008
Abstract

2007

Foldy, E.G., Goldman, L. & Ospina, S. 2007. Sensegiving and the Role of Cognitive Shifts In the Work of Leadership in Leadership Quarterly
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Abstract

Sensegiving -- shaping how people understand themselves, their work, and others engaged in that work -- is critical to the work of organizational leadership. We propose the cognitive shift, a change in how an organizational audience understands an important element of the organization's work, as a desired outcome of the sensegiving process. Organizations try to spur these shifts in two categories: about their issue and about their primary constituency, the population it is designed to serve or mobilize. This approach makes two contributions: It re-directs attention from individual leaders' behaviors and characteristics to the work of leadership, as opposed to the agents through which it is carried out. Second, it operationalizes the intangible process of meaning-making by breaking it down into discrete units that are relatively equivalent and, therefore, comparable, providing a systematic way to analyze and map cognitive leadership processes.

2006

Ospina, S. & Sorenson, G. 2006. A Constructionist Lens on Leadership: Charting New Territory The Quest for a General Theory of Leadership edited by Goethals, George and Sorenson, Georgia, Edward Elgar Publishers,
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Abstract

The April, 2003 meeting of the general theory scholars included invitations to scholars utilizing action-research methodologies as well as to practitioners on the frontline of leadership development in communities. Ospina discussed the participant-centered research she and her colleagues are undertaking for the Ford Foundation's Leadership for a Changing World program and shared with the other scholars some findings emerging from this approach. Using a constructionist lens, Ospina and her colleagues are working with social change leaders to understand how leadership emerges and develops in community-based organizations engaged in social change agendas.

Ospina, S. 2006. Governance and Leadership for Social Change Reforma y Democracia, CLAD, Venezuela, No. 35, pp. 93-122
Abstract

Ospina, S. 2006. An Invisible Actor in US Governance: the Role of Civil Society Organizations in the Creation of Social Change Leadership Reforma y Democracia. CLAD, Venezuela, , (in Spanish)
Abstract

2005

Ospina, S. & Dodge, J. 2005. Narrative Inquiry and the Search for Connectedness: Practitioners and Academics Developing Public Administration Scholarship Public Administration Review, July/August 2005, Vol 65, No. 4.
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Abstract

Maintaining a vibrant field of public administration requires ongoing efforts to link the worlds of academic researchers and practitioners. We suggest that research itself, traditionally pursued by academics, is a promising mechanism for making this connection. In particular, researchers and practitioners in public administration can do research together in a way that enhances mutual learning, draws on the strengths of each to create useful knowledge of high quality, appreciates and tolerates of each others' worlds, styles, and contributions. Using research to promote connectedness means rethinking the roles that practitioners and academics play in generating knowledge in the field. In our project, insights from the assumptions and practices of narrative inquiry helped us to identify three research roles for practitioners: as sources of knowledge, as producers of knowledge, and as active consumers who inform the research process.

Dodge, J., Ospina, S. & Foldy, E.G. 2005. Integrating Rigor and Relevance in Public Administration Scholarship: The Contribution of Narrative Inquiry Public Administration Review, Vol. 65, May/June, No.3, pp. 286.
Abstract

A traditional view of scholarly quality defines rigor as the application of method and assumes an implicit connection with relevance. But as an applied field, public administration requires explicit attention to both rigor and relevance. Interpretive scholars' notions of rigor demand an explicit inclusion of relevance as an integral aspect of quality. As one form of interpretive research, narrative inquiry illuminates how this can be done. Appreciating this contribution requires a deeper knowledge of the logic of narrative inquiry, an acknowledgement of the diversity of narrative approaches, and attention to the implications for judging its quality. We use our story about community-based leadership research to develop and illustrate this argument.

Ospina, S. & Dodge, J. 2005. It's About Time: Catching Method Up to Meaning-The Usefulness of Narrative Inquiry in Public Administration Research Public Administration Review, Vol. 65, No. 2, pp. 143.
Abstract

A traditional view of scholarly quality defines rigor as the application of method and assumes an implicit connection with relevance. But as an applied field, public administration requires explicit attention to both rigor and relevance. Interpretive scholars' notions of rigor demand an explicit inclusion of relevance as an integral aspect of quality. As one form of interpretive research, narrative inquiry illuminates how this can be done. Appreciating this contribution requires a deeper knowledge of the logic of narrative inquiry, an acknowledgement of the diversity of narrative approaches, and attention to the implications for judging its quality. We use our story about community-based leadership research to develop and illustrate this argument.

2004

Ospina, S., Dodge, J., Godsoe, B., Mineri, J., Reza, S. & Schall, E. 2004. From Consent to Mutual Inquiry: Balancing Democracy and Authority in Action Research Action Research, March, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 47-69 (22) Sage Publications.
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Abstract

The Leadership for a Changing World (LCW) program is a joint endeavor between the Ford Foundation, the Advocacy Institute, and the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service. This paper focuses on the experiences of the Research and Documentation component of LCW – lead by a research team from the Wagner School – during the initial implementation phases of the research. This component formed an inquiry group consisting of both academic researchers and social change practitioners to collaboratively explore and discover the ways in which communities doing social change engage in the work of leadership. We used group relations theory to understand a series of critical dilemmas and contradictions experienced by the coresearchers. This paper identifies four such paradoxes that center around issues of democracy and authority.

Schall, E., Ospina, S., Godsoe, B. & Dodge, J. 2004. Appreciative Narratives as Leadership Research: Matching Method to Lens In David Cooperrider and Michel Avital (eds), Advances in Appreciative Inquiry Vol 1: Constructive Discourse and Human Organization. Elsevier Science, Ltd.
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Abstract

This chapter explores the potential of appreciative inquiry for doing empirical work on leadership. We use a framework that matches a constructionist theoretical lens, an appreciative and participative stance, a focus on the work of leadership (as opposed to leaders), and multiple methods of inquiry (narrative, ethnographic and cooperative). We elaborate on our experiences with narrative inquiry, while highlighting the value of doing narrative inquiry in an appreciative manner. Finally, we suggest that this particular framework is helping us see how social change leadership work reframes the value that the larger society attributes to members of vulnerable communities.

Dodge, J., Ospina, S. & Sparrow, R. 2004. Making Partnership A Habit: Margie McHugh and the New York Immigration Coalition Synergos Bridging Leadership Resource Center. Synergos Institute, New York,
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Abstract

The strategies and methods used by the New York Immigration Coalition (NYIC) are attracting increased attention for their sustainable collaborative systems that address critical social and economic needs. This case focuses on the evolution of NYIC's successful methods for building bridges across sectors and among a diverse group of immigrant communities, and the leadership approach that made it work.

Ospina, S., Cunill, N. & Zaltsman, A. 2004. Performance Evaluation, Public Management Improvement and Democractic Accountability: Some Lessons from Latin America Public Management Review, Spring 2004, Vol 6, no. 2, pp. 230-251.
Abstract

The results-oriented management reforms fostered by the New Public Management movement are often argued to emphasize the search for efficiency, quality and other typical market values at the expense of democratic accountability. On the other hand, challenging this view, some authors claim that results-based management reforms have the potential to enhance political accountability and representative democracy. There is however, limited empirical evidence of this relationship. This article uses some of the findings from a comparative study of public management evaluation systems in four Latin American countries to illuminate this relationship in practice. We discuss the fact that, in two of the four countries surveyed, the design features of the new systems were based on the explicit search for increased political accountability and the deepening of democracy. We also discuss the possible causes for the finding that the outcome and performance information generated is not being applied for decision-making purposes yet, as expected.

Ospina, S. 2004. Qualitative Research In G. R. Goethals, G. S. Sorenson, & J. M. Burns, Encyclopedia of Leadership 2004, pp. 1279-1284. Thousand Oaks, CA.
Abstract

People are fascinated by the stories of leaders, but not much has been written about the forces that shape them. This set brings together "what truly matters about leadership" to map an emerging discipline that draws from history, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, political science, and psychology. It seeks to answer questions such as what is leadership? What is a great leader? What is a great follower? What are the types of leadership? And how does someone become a leader?

2003

Ospina, S. 2003. Understanding Cooperative Behavior in Labor Management Cooperation: A Theoy-Building Exercise Public Administration Review, July 2003, vol.63, no.4, pp. 455-471(17) Blackwell Publishing Inc.
Abstract

This article proposes a theory of how mandated institutional cooperation transforms into individual cooperative behavior. Using qualitative strategies, we draw insights about cooperation in three public-sector efforts of labor-management cooperation (LMC). We report an association between critical shifts in the roles of stakeholders and the change from adversarial to cooperative labor relations. While managers became team players along with their employees, labor representatives assumed managerial responsibilities. These changes were also associated with a service-oriented perspective, better understanding of the other's experiences, and a view of cooperation as partnership. At the heart of these transformations, we found critical changes in communication patterns associated with incrementally growing levels of trust. We propose a model that depicts the links between collective and individual levels of organizational action related to LMC. We conclude that the positive shifts in mental models regarding work and the value of cooperation justify the promotion of LMC efforts.

Ospina, S. 2003. Diversity Jack Rabin (ed). Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, Marcel Decker: New York,
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Abstract

Public agencies have the mandate to consider the plurality of values, concerns and voices of the larger population in their work, as well as to include a wide variety of citizens in their workforce. When diversity is pursued as an organizational objective, more efficient management and the democratic values of responsiveness and representation in public administration are both said to be better achieved.

Ospina, S. & Ochoa, D. 2003. El Sistema Nacional de Evaluación de Resultados de la Gestión Pública (Sinergia) de Colombia (Colombian National System of Outcome Evaluation of the Public Management) in Cunill, Nuria, Ospina, Sonia (ed.) Evaluación de Resultados para una Gestión Pública Moderna y Democrática. Experiencias Latinoamericanas. Venezuela: CLAD–Editorial Texto, pp. 143-238.
Abstract

Ospina, S. & Yaroni, A. 2003. Enacting Labor Management Cooperation: New Competencies for the New Times in Jonathan Brock and David B. Lipsky (ed.) Going Public: The Role of Labor-Management Relations in Delivering Quality Government Services. Champaign, Illinois: Industrial Relations Research Association. 2003, pp. 137-170.
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Abstract

The public sector currently employs around 40 percent of all union members in the United States. Pressures for cost-effective and quality government services have placed new demands on the labor-management relationship. A fluctuating set of expectations about the appropriate responsibilities of government and a shifting political culture are severely testing the ability of the public sector to meet demands for increased accountability and expanded services. Especially in an age of knowledge workers, the traditional division between labor and management regarding leadership and work may no longer be viable. Going Public examines the forces affecting labor and management and the prospects for adopting service-oriented cooperative relationships as a key strategy for meeting the expanded demands on the public sector.

Cunill, N. & Ospina, S. 2003. Evaluación de Resultados para una Gestión Pública Moderna y Democrática. Experiencias Latinoamericanas (Outcome Evaluation for a Modern and Democratic Public Management: Latin American Experiences) Venezuela: CLAD - Editorial Texto, C.A.
Abstract

 

Ospina, S. & Cunill, N. 2003. La Evaluación de los Resultados de la Gestión Pública: Una Herramienta Técnica y Política (Outcome Evaluation for Public Management: A Technical and Political Tool) in Cunill, Nuria, Ospina, Sonia (ed.) Evaluación de Resultados para una Gestión Pública Moderna y Democrática. Experiencias Latinoamericanas. Venezuela: CLAD – Editorial Texto, pp. 435-494.
Abstract

Ospina, S. 2003. La Reforma del Estado y los Cambios en las Relaciones Intergubernamentales de Final de Siglo (State Reform and Changes in Intergovernmental Relations by the end of the Century) in Gerenciando las relaciones intergubernamentales. Experiencias en América Latina. Ospina, S., Penfold, M. (ed.) NASPAA - Editorial Nueva Sociedad.
Abstract

La profundización de la democracia está directamente relacionada con las capacidades de los gobiernos, de todos los niveles, para dar respuestas a las necesidades y requerimientos de sus ciudadanos. La asignación de responsabilidad a los poderes públicos es otra cara de la misma moneda. Dentro de las múltiples aristas de una agenda para el desarrollo integral, la consolidación de una administración pública que garantice imparcialidad es elemento básico para la existencia del Estado de derecho. Asimismo, una administración pública eficiente y efectiva en la acción gubernamental solo se logra cuando se somete a criterios de capacidad profesional y mérito en su conformación.

Ospina, S. & Cunill, N. 2003. Una Agenda de Investigación Sobre la Evaluación de los Resultados de la Gestion Pública (A Research Agenda about Outcome Evaluation of Public Management) in Cunill, Nuria, Ospina, Sonia (ed.) Evaluación de Resultados para una Gestión Pública Moderna y Democrática. Experiencias Latinoamericanas. Venezuela: CLAD-Editorial Texto, pp. 11-42.
Abstract

2002

Ospina, S., Diaz, W. & O'Sullivan, J. 2002. Negotiating Accountability: Managerial Lessons from Identity-Based Nonprofit Organizations Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, March, Vol 31, No. 1, pp. 5-31.
Abstract

This article explores the emerging conceptualization of accountability in nonprofit organizations. This definition broadens traditional concerns with finances, internal controls, and regulatory compliance. The authors explore how the top-level managers of 4 identity-based nonprofit organizations (IBNPs) faced accountability and responsiveness challenges to accomplish their mission. The organization-community link was the core relationship in their accountability environment, helping the IBNP managers achieve what the literature calls "negotiated accountability." The managers favored organizational mechanisms to sustain this relationship in the midst of the accountability demands they experienced daily. Communication with the primary constituency tended to drive the organization's priorities and programs, helped managers find legitimate negotiation tools with other stakeholders, and helped develop a broader notion of accountability. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for other nonprofit organizations and propose questions to further clarify the concepts of broad accountability, negotiated accountability, and the link between accountability and responsiveness in nonprofits.

Schall, E., Ospina, S., Godsoe, B., and Dodge, J. 2002. Appreciative narratives as leadership research: Matching method to lens. Advances in Appreciative Inquiry, a new book series edited by David Cooperrider and Michel Avital, Case Western Reserve University.
Abstract

Ospina, S., Schall, E., Godsoe, B. & Dodge, J. 2002. Co-Producing Knowledge: Practitioners and Scholars Working Together to Understand Leadership. In Cynthia Cherrey and Larraine R. Matusak (ed.) Building Leadership Bridges International Leadership Association. 2002, pp. 59-67.
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Abstract

The Ford Foundation, the Washington D.C. based Advocacy Institute and the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University are partners in a new
leadership awards program called Leadership for a Changing World (LCW). The goal of this program is to recognize and better understand social change leadership in American
communities. As the research and documentation team for the project, we are partnering with the program's awardees to generate new knowledge about the ways in which communities trying to make social change engage in the work of leadership. In doing this work, we have begun to explore and test a new approach to working with practitioners to co-produce knowledge about leadership.

Ospina, S. & Penfold, M. 2002. Gerenciando las Relaciones Intergubernamentales. Experiencias en América Latina. (Managing Intergovernmental Relationships. Latin American Experiences) Editorial Nueva Sociedad - NASPAA,
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Ospina, S. & O'Sullivan, J. 2002. Working Together: Meeting the Challenges of Workforce Diversity In Steve Hayes and Richard Kearney (ed.). Public Personnel Administration: Problems and Prospects. 4th edition. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs. 2002, pp. 238-255.
Abstract

This collection of original manuscripts-representing a cross-section of the timeliest scholarship in public personnel administration-explores the theme of "problems and prospects" in public personnel administration. The contributions are organized into four broad sections: The Setting, The Techniques, The Issues, and Reform and the Future. Section One focuses primarily on the social, political, economic, and legal trends that have served as catalysts in the transformation of public personnel administration. Section Two is composed of selections that summarize developments in the practice of HRM, with special emphasis on emerging personnel techniques and the ways that traditional approaches to the staffing function are being revised. Section Three discusses and suggests responses to some of the most troublesome or pervasive issues in modern personnel management. The final section assesses the probable trends in the field's future, and analyzes the efficacy of recent reform efforts. For human resource personnel looking to broaden their perspective in the field.

2001

Ospina, S. 2001. Public Management Evaluation: Concepts and Applications in Latin America. Reforma y Democracia CLAD, Venezuela, No. 19, Feb. 2001, pp. 89-122 (in Spanish).
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Ospina, S. 2001. Globalization and Local Development: Toward a Municipalist Perspective Revista de Estudios Sociales (Social Studies Journal). Colombia, Vol. 8, Jan. 2001, pp. 21-34 (in Spanish).
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Ospina, S. & Schall, E. 2001. Leadership (Re)constructed: How Lens Matters November
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Abstract

This paper develops a view of leadership as a social construct, as something that is created through dialogue among groups of people in a particular context. Different contexts allow us to see how leadership emerges in action. We further develop the idea that leadership is relational to highlight its social and collective nature and to stress the importance of studying leadership in context. The way people make meaning of leadership is an important focus, so it becomes necessary to understand the "knowledge principle," or dominant ideas that inform the work of leadership, as well. This approach contributes to the development of the body of literature that views leadership as a collective achievement, not something that belongs to an individual. Not only does this approach hold promise to provide interesting new insights to enrich leadership theory, it allows for the opportunity to produce new knowledge that is useful to practitioners, thereby enhancing existing leadership and inspiring new leadership to emerge.

Ospina, S. 2001. Managing Diversity in Civil Service: A Case Study in Public Management in IMDESA-IIAS (ed), Managing Diversity in the Civil Service. ISO Press: Amsterdam. 2001, pp. 11-29.
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Abstract

The new century has been marked by a generalized sense that traditional work arrangements are inadequate to address the challenges organizations encounter today. The shifts from an industrial to an information-based society, and from a manufacturing to a service economy, compounded by the forces of globalization, have propelled revolutionary changes on work place arrangements. These trends have affected work not only in industrialized societies, but in all nations. Many assumptions about how to best organize tasks and people - as well as the solutions to organizational problems based on those assumptions - do not seem to make sense any more. A paradigmatic shift is taking place in how we think about contemporary organizations and their governance.

Ospina, S. 2001. Managing Diversity in Civil Service: A Conceptual Framework for Public Organizations. IMDESA-IIAS (ed), Managing Diversity in the Civil Service. IOS Press: Amsterdam. 2001, pp. 11-29.
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Abstract

In this paper I explore the managerial challenges posed by diversity in addressing traditional and new requirements for effective performance in public organizations. I survey the core dimensions, concepts and approaches to diversity in reference to organizations dependent of civil
service as their core employment system. In doing so, I expect to show that the mandate to manage diversity in the civil service cannot be based on a one-size-fits-all strategy (Mor Barak, 2000). Designing and implementing this agenda requires a deliberate and methodical managerial strategy that starts with a diagnosis of how diversity affects organizational performance. It
continues with an analysis of the extent to which civil service rules and regulations, its practices and the underlying managerial philosophies about people promote or inhibit public agencies to advance through what scholars call ‘the diversity continuum' (Minors, 1996; Ospina, 1996), from exclusionary to multicultural workplaces (Cox, 1993). Only considering the degree of diversity and the historical, political, cultural and economic contexts of public employment in a given jurisdiction, can a tailored diversity agenda work.
The paper is structured as follows. First, focusing on the conceptual foundations of the diversity agenda, I use organization and management theory to explore what is diversity and why it is an imperative for all organizations. In a transitional section, I then discuss the implications of ‘what' and ‘why', for the agenda of managing diversity. Third, moving into the world of practice, I provide an overview of diversity approaches and strategies, highlighting the benefits of systemic,
proactive strategies to diversity management in contemporary public organizations. I return in the conclusion to the implications of the approaches presented for managing diversity in civil service.

2000

Ospina, S. 2000. Linking Consulting and Research Activities: A Case Study in Public Management in Management Dialogues: Researchers and Practitioners Find a Space to Share Experiences COLOCIENCIAS and Corporacion Calidad, Bogota, Columbia, pp. 83-104.
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1999

Ospina, S. & Watad, M. 1999. Integrated Managerial Training: A Program for Strategic Management Review of Public Personnel Management, 28:2, pp. 185-195.
Abstract

Presents a case study of a managerial training program implemented in a large nonprofit organization. Suggestion that human resources managers can enhance the effectiveness of managerial training programs by providing opportunities for horizontal and vertical integration; Consequences of implementing this approach, including an expanded communications process and bonding between team members.

Ospina, S., Durbin, E. & Schall, E. 1999. Living and Learning: Women and Management in Public Service Journal of Public Affairs Education. 5:1, Winter.
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1998

Ospina, S., Durbin, E., Schwartz, A. & Schall, E. 1998. An Agenda for Action in Friedman, J. De. Groute and P. Christenseon (ed). Innovating Work and Life: The Wharton Resource Guide San Francisco: Jossey Bass-Pferrer. pp. 377-386.
Abstract

Ospina, S. 1998. Public Administration as a Discourse Community: Some Lessons from the U.S. Case for Latin America CLAD, Venezuela, No. 10, Feb. 1998, pp. 83-112.
Abstract

1997

Ospina, S., et al. 1997. Constructing the New York Area Hispanic Mosaic: A Demographic Portrait of Colombians and Dominicans in New York California, NALEO Educational Fund/The Tomás Rivera Policy Institute.
Abstract

Desipio, L., Hoffman, A. & Pachon, H. 1997. Diversifying the New York Area Hispanic Mosaic: Colombian and Dominican Leaders’ Assessment of Community Public Policy Needs. California, NALEO Educational Fund/The Tomás Rivera Policy Institute.
Abstract

1996

Ospina, S. 1996. Bringing Opportunity Back In: Organizational Inequality and the Study of Work Attitudes Journal of Administrative Theory and Praxis, 18:1, pp. 27-40.
Abstract

Ospina, S. 1996. Illusions of Opportunity: Employee Expectations and Work Place Inequality Ithaca: Cornell University Press/ Industrial Labor Relations Press,
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Ospina, S. & Watad, M. 1996. Informational Technology and Organizational Change: The Role of Context in Moderating Change Enabled by Technology in Kautz, K and Pries-Heje, J. (ed). Diffusion and Adoption of Informational Technology. Oslo: International Federation for Information Processing, pp. 202-219.
Abstract

Ospina, S. 1996. Realizing the Promise of Diversity in Handbook of Public Administration 2nd Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, pp. 441-459.
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1995

Ospina, S. 1995. Professional Education in Public Management Public Management: Private Matter? Bogota, Columbia: Editorial Tercer Mundo.
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