The New York Urban League Survey: Black New York-On Edge, but Optimistic

Stafford, W.W.
State of Black America (National Urban League).

In the waning decades of the 20 century, New York City was transformed from a magnet for U.S.- and Caribbean-born blacks to the center of the Diaspora of people of African descent. From Ethiopia to Panama, from Ghana to Brazil, immigrants of African descent streamed into the city's neighborhoods, enriching black culture with their languages and religions, and extending the range of black political interests.