Labor

The Price of Female Headship: Gender, Inheritance, and Wealth Accumulation in the United States

The Price of Female Headship: Gender, Inheritance, and Wealth Accumulation in the United States
Journal of Income Distribution, Fall2004/Winter2005, Vol. 13 Issue 3/4, p41-56, 16p.

Conley, D. & Ryvicker, M.
01/01/2004

Female-headed households in the United States suffer from lower levels of asset ownership than their male-headed counterparts. This gap remains after controlling for the lower incomes of female heads. What, then, produces the gender discrepancy in net worth? Using longitudinal, intergenerational data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we ask whether differential patterns of inheritance, savings rates, or investment yield this female-male asset gap. Results demonstrate that differential savings rates between female- and male-headed households account for the gender gap in net worth. We speculate on the financial constraints within female-headed households that account for the savings rate differential.

Gender, Race, Class and Welfare Reform

Gender, Race, Class and Welfare Reform
Roundtable of Institutions of People of Color and the Women of Color Policy Newtwork

Walter Stafford, Diana Salas, Melissa Mendez
08/01/2003

This study on welfare reform contends that race and gender coalesce through historic and contemporary government, policy and market failures to deny benefits and jobs to women of color while blaming them for their condition. It is divided into three sections: the first addresses national policy trends with an emphasis on race and gender, the second looks at New York City, and the third offers recommendations. The report was published in the National Urban League's State of Black America, 2003.

Understanding Cooperative Behavior in Labor Management Cooperation: A Theoy-Building Exercise

Understanding Cooperative Behavior in Labor Management Cooperation: A Theoy-Building Exercise
Public Administration Review, July 2003, vol.63, no.4, pp. 455-471(17) Blackwell Publishing Inc.

Ospina, S.
07/01/2003

This article proposes a theory of how mandated institutional cooperation transforms into individual cooperative behavior. Using qualitative strategies, we draw insights about cooperation in three public-sector efforts of labor-management cooperation (LMC). We report an association between critical shifts in the roles of stakeholders and the change from adversarial to cooperative labor relations. While managers became team players along with their employees, labor representatives assumed managerial responsibilities. These changes were also associated with a service-oriented perspective, better understanding of the other's experiences, and a view of cooperation as partnership. At the heart of these transformations, we found critical changes in communication patterns associated with incrementally growing levels of trust. We propose a model that depicts the links between collective and individual levels of organizational action related to LMC. We conclude that the positive shifts in mental models regarding work and the value of cooperation justify the promotion of LMC efforts.

Second Annual Status of Women of Color Report: Women of Color in New York City: Still Invisible in Policy

Second Annual Status of Women of Color Report: Women of Color in New York City: Still Invisible in Policy
Women of Color Policy Network Roundtable of Institutions of People of Color

Stafford, Walter & Salas, Diana
03/01/2003

Demography is not destiny. While groups of color - Asians, Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans - have emerged as New York City's new majority, large segments of the groups remain burdened by many of the historical problems associated with disadvantaged minorities. This report highlights the problems faced by lower-income women of color, especially single mothers. Often bypassed during the economic boom of the 1990s, these women have found that employment opportunities have all but evaporated in the current economic malaise. The elimination of federal welfare entitlements have only served to exacerbate these problems. To read more click on the link below.

Women Of Color In New York City:Still Invisible In Policy

Women Of Color In New York City:Still Invisible In Policy
Second Annual Status of Women of Color Report.

Stafford, W.W. & Salas, D.
03/01/2003

Demography is not destiny. While groups of color - Asians, Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans - have emerged as New York City's new majority, large segments of the groups remain burdened by many of the historical problems associated with disadvantaged minorities. This report highlights the problems faced by lower-income women of color, especially single mothers. Often bypassed during the economic boom of the 1990s, these women have found that employment opportunities have all but evaporated in the current economic malaise. The elimination of federal welfare entitlements have only served to exacerbate these problems. To read more click on the link below.

Effects of Welfare and Anti-Poverty Policies on Adult Economic and Middle-Childhood Outcomes Differ for the Hardest to Employ

Effects of Welfare and Anti-Poverty Policies on Adult Economic and Middle-Childhood Outcomes Differ for the Hardest to Employ
Child Development, Volume 74, pp. 1500-1521,

Yoshikawa, H., Magnuson, K.A., Bos, J.M. & Hsueh, J..
01/01/2003

Data from the Minnesota Family Investment Program and the New Hope demonstration were used to determine whether experimental effects of antipoverty policies differ by parents' risk for nonemployment. Using propensity score analysis, increases in employment and income were largest in the harder-to-employ halves of both samples. However, only children in the moderately hard-to-employ quartiles (50th to 75th percentile) consistently showed improvements in school and behavior outcomes. The very-hardest-to-employ 25% experienced decreases in school engagement, and increases in aggressive behaviors, despite substantial increases in parental employment and income. In this group, increases in maternal depression, reductions in regular family routines, and smaller increases in job stability and center-based child care occurred. These factors may have counteracted the potential benefits of increased income on children.

Enacting Labor Management Cooperation: New Competencies for the New Times

Enacting Labor Management Cooperation: New Competencies for the New Times
in Jonathan Brock and David B. Lipsky (ed.) Going Public: The Role of Labor-Management Relations in Delivering Quality Government Services. Champaign, Illinois: Industrial Relations Research Association. 2003, pp. 137-170.

Ospina, S. & Yaroni, A.
01/01/2003

The public sector currently employs around 40 percent of all union members in the United States. Pressures for cost-effective and quality government services have placed new demands on the labor-management relationship. A fluctuating set of expectations about the appropriate responsibilities of government and a shifting political culture are severely testing the ability of the public sector to meet demands for increased accountability and expanded services. Especially in an age of knowledge workers, the traditional division between labor and management regarding leadership and work may no longer be viable. Going Public examines the forces affecting labor and management and the prospects for adopting service-oriented cooperative relationships as a key strategy for meeting the expanded demands on the public sector.

Erosion and Reform from the Center in Kenya

Erosion and Reform from the Center in Kenya
in James Wunsch and Dele Olowu, eds., Local Governance in Africa: The Challenges of Democratic Decentralization. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner Publishers,

Smoke, P.
01/01/2003

Kenya has a rich history of local governance, both from ethnic-group traditions and the system set up during the British colonial era, when local governments were fairly independence (1963), when Kenya's economy and population growth accelerated, demands were so heavy that some local governments could not deliver key services adequately. This situation, combined with the central government's desire for political consolidation to minimize ethnic power conflicts that increased in the postcolonial era, prompted the government to weaken local authorities. Key services (health, education, major roads) were recentralized, and the local graduated personal tax (GPT) was taken over by the center. Grants were established to compensate local governments for their revenue losses, but they were gradually phased out. Control over local governments expanded, with few spending, revenue, or employment decisions permitted without scrutiny by the Ministry of Local Government (MLG).

New Hope for Families and Children: Five-Year Results of a Program to Reduce Poverty and Reform Welfare

New Hope for Families and Children: Five-Year Results of a Program to Reduce Poverty and Reform Welfare

Huston, A., Miller, C., Richburg-Hayes, L., Duncan, G.J., Eldred, C.A., Weisner, T.S., Lowe, E., McLoyd, V.C., Crosby, D.A., Ripke, M.N. & Redcross, C.
01/01/2003

The principle guiding the New Hope Project — a demonstration program that was implemented in two inner-city areas in Milwaukee from 1994 through 1998 — was that anyone who works full time should not be poor. New Hope offered low-income people who were willing to work full time several benefits, each of which was available for three years: an earnings supplement to raise their income above the poverty level; subsidized health insurance; subsidized child care; and, for people who had difficulty finding full-time work, referral to a wage-paying community service job. The program was designed to increase employment and income as well as use of health insurance and licensed child care, and it was hoped that children would be the ultimate beneficiaries of these changes. A team of researchers at MDRC and the University of Texas at Austin is examining New Hope’s effects in a largescale random assignment study. This interim report from the study focuses on the families and children of the 745 sample members who had at least one child between the ages of 1 and 10 when they entered the study. The new findings draw on administrative records and survey data covering the period up to five years after study entry (Year 5), that is, two years after the program ended. A final report will examine New Hope’s effects after eight years.

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