Management

Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants

Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants
Obesity (Silver Spring). Oct 2011; 19(10): 1971–1978.

Elbel, B.
10/04/2010

Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale.

A la santé de l'oncle Sam: regards croisés sur les systémes de santé; américain et français (To Uncle Sam's Health: Cross perspectives on the American and French Health Systems)

A la santé de l'oncle Sam: regards croisés sur les systémes de santé; américain et français (To Uncle Sam's Health: Cross perspectives on the American and French Health Systems)
Paris, Jacob-Duvernet

Tabuteau, D., Rodwin, V.G.
08/01/2010

Victor Rodwin, professor of health policy and management at NYU Wagner, and his colleague Didier Tabuteau, counselor of state and professor of health policy at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques and the University of Paris Descartes, have published a new book (published by Editions Jacob Duvernet) in which they challenge the conventional wisdom that the French health care system is a government-managed, public and collective enterprise and the American system a private, market-oriented and individualist system. Based on six months of debates in Paris while Professor Rodwin held the Fulbright-Toqueville Chair (spring semester, 2010), this book compares public health, health insurance, the power of physicians, health care reform, and the silent revolution that is transforming health care organization in both France and the United States.

Epidemiological characteristics and resource use in neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: 1993-2006

Epidemiological characteristics and resource use in neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: 1993-2006
Pediatrics. 2010 Aug;126(2):291-7.

Stroustrup A, Trasande L.
08/01/2010

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the trends in incidence of diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and associated health services use for the neonatal hospitalization of patients with BPD in an era of changing definitions and management.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

All neonatal hospitalization records available through the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1993-2006, were analyzed. Multivariable regression analyses were performed for incidence of BPD diagnosis and associated hospital length of stay and charges. Multiple models were constructed to assess the roles of changes in diagnosis of very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates and different modalities of respiratory support used for treatment.

RESULTS:

The absolute incidence of diagnosis of BPD fell 3.3% annually (P = .0009) between 1993 and 2006 coincident with a 3.5-fold increase in the use of noninvasive respiratory support in patients with BPD. When data were controlled for demographic factors, this significant decrease in incidence persisted at a rate of 4.3% annually (P = .0002). All models demonstrated a rise in hospital length of stay and financial charges for the neonatal hospitalization of patients with BPD. The incidence of BPD adjusted for frequency of prolonged mechanical ventilation also decreased but only by 2.8% annually (P = .0075).

CONCLUSIONS:

The incidence of diagnosis of BPD decreased significantly between 1993 and 2006. In well-controlled models, birth hospitalization charges for these patients rose during the same period. Less invasive ventilatory support may improve respiratory outcomes of VLBW neonates.

Hospital Performance, the Local Economy, and the Local Workforce: Findings from a US National Longitudinal Study

Hospital Performance, the Local Economy, and the Local Workforce: Findings from a US National Longitudinal Study
PLoS Med 7(6): e1000297. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000297

Blustein, J., Borden, W.B., Valentine, M.
06/29/2010

Abstract

Background: Pay-for-performance is an increasingly popular approach to improving health care quality, and the US government will soon implement pay-for-performance in hospitals nationwide. Yet hospital capacity to perform (and

improve performance) likely depends on local resources. In this study, we quantify the association between hospital performance and local economic and human resources, and describe possible implications of pay-for-performance for socioeconomic equity.

Methods and Findings: We applied county-level measures of local economic and workforce resources to a national sample of US hospitals (n = 2,705), during the period 2004–2007. We analyzed performance for two common cardiac conditions (acute myocardial infarction [AMI] and heart failure [HF]), using process-of-care measures from the Hospital Quality Alliance [HQA], and isolated temporal trends and the contributions of individual resource dimensions on performance, using multivariable mixed models. Performance scores were translated into net scores for hospitals using the Performance Assessment Model, which has been suggested as a basis for reimbursement under Medicare’s ‘‘Value-Based Purchasing’’ program. Our analyses showed that hospital performance is substantially associated with local economic and workforce resources. For example, for HF in 2004, hospitals located in counties with longstanding poverty had mean HQA composite scores of 73.0, compared with a mean of 84.1 for hospitals in counties without longstanding poverty (p,0.001). Hospitals located in counties in the lowest quartile with respect to college graduates in the workforce had mean HQA composite scores of 76.7, compared with a mean of 86.2 for hospitals in the highest quartile (p,0.001). Performance on AMI measures showed similar patterns. Performance improved generally over the study period. Nevertheless, by 2007—4 years after public reporting began—hospitals in locationally disadvantaged areas still lagged behind their locationally advantaged counterparts. This lag translated into substantially lower net scores under the Performance Assessment Model for hospital reimbursement.

Conclusions: Hospital performance on clinical process measures is associated with the quantity and quality of local economic and human resources. Medicare’s hospital pay-for-performance program may exacerbate inequalities across regions, if implemented as currently proposed. Policymakers in the US and beyond may need to take into consideration the balance between greater efficiency through pay-for-performance and socioeconomic equity.

Please see later in the article for the Editors’ Summary.

How to House the Homeless

How to House the Homeless
Russell Sage Foundation Press

Ellen, I.G. & O'Flaherty, B. (eds.).
06/01/2010

How to House the Homeless, editors Ingrid Gould Ellen and Brendan O’Flaherty propose that the answers entail rethinking how housing markets operate and developing more efficient interventions in existing service programs. The book critically reassesses where we are now, analyzes the most promising policies and programs going forward, and offers a new agenda for future research. How to House the Homeless makes clear the inextricable link between homelessness and housing policy. Contributor Jill Khadduri reviews the current residential services system and housing subsidy programs. For the chronically homeless, she argues, a combination of assisted housing approaches can reach the greatest number of people and, specifically, an expanded Housing Choice Voucher system structured by location, income, and housing type can more efficiently reach people at-risk of becoming homeless and reduce time spent homeless. Robert Rosenheck examines the options available to homeless people with mental health problems and reviews the cost-effectiveness of five service models: system integration, supported housing, clinical case management, benefits outreach, and supported employment. He finds that only programs that subsidize housing make a noticeable dent in homelessness, and that no one program shows significant benefits in multiple domains of life. Contributor Sam Tsemberis assesses the development and cost-effectiveness of the Housing First program, which serves mentally ill homeless people in more than four hundred cities. He asserts that the program’s high housing retention rate and general effectiveness make it a viable candidate for replication across the country. Steven Raphael makes the case for a strong link between homelessness and local housing market regulations—which affect housing affordability—and shows that the problem is more prevalent in markets with stricter zoning laws. Finally, Brendan O’Flaherty bridges the theoretical gap between the worlds of public health and housing research, evaluating the pros and cons of subsidized housing programs and the economics at work in the rental housing market and home ownership. Ultimately, he suggests, the most viable strategies will serve as safety nets—“social insurance”—to reach people who are homeless now and to prevent homelessness in the future. It is crucial that the links between effective policy and the whole cycle of homelessness—life conditions, service systems, and housing markets—be made clear now. With a keen eye on the big picture of housing policy, How to House the Homeless shows what works and what doesn’t in reducing the numbers of homeless and reaching those most at risk.

Health Care in World Cities: New York, London and Paris

Health Care in World Cities: New York, London and Paris
Johns Hopkins University Press, April

Gusmano, M.K., Rodwin, V.G. & Weisz, D.
04/01/2010

New York. London. Paris. Although these cities have similar sociodemographic characteristics, including income inequalities and ethic diversity, they have vastly different health systems and services. This book compares the three and considers lessons that can be applied to current and future debates about urban health care.

Highlighting the importance of a national policy for city health systems, the authors use well-established indicators and comparable data sources to shed light on urban health policy and practice. Their detailed comparison of the three city health systems and the national policy regimes in which they function provides information about access to health care in the developed world's largest cities.

The authors first review the current literature on comparative analysis of health systems and offer a brief overview of the public health infrastructure in each city. Later chapters illustrate how timely and appropriate disease prevention, primary care, and specialty health care services can help cities control such problems as premature mortality and heart disease.

In providing empirical comparisons of access to care in these three health systems, the authors refute inaccurate claims about health care outside of the United States.

Click here for a brief excerpt of the content.

How much should we invest in preventing childhood obesity?

How much should we invest in preventing childhood obesity?
Health Aff (Millwood). 2010 Mar-Apr;29(3):372-8.

Trasande L
03/01/2010

Policy makers generally agree that childhood obesity is a national problem. However, it is not always clear whether enough is being spent to combat it. This paper presents nine scenarios that assume three different degrees of reduction in obesity/overweight rates among children in three age groups. A mathematical model was then used to project lifetime health and economic gains. Spending $2 billion a year would be cost-effective if it reduced obesity among twelve-year-olds by one percentage point. The analysis also found that childhood obesity has more profound economic consequences than previously documented. Large investments to reduce this major contributor to adult disability may thus be cost-effective by widely accepted criteria.

Medicare Payments, Health Care Services Use, and Telemedicine Implementation Cost in Randomized Trial Comparing Telemedicine Case Management With Usual Care in Medically Underserved Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

Medicare Payments, Health Care Services Use, and Telemedicine Implementation Cost in Randomized Trial Comparing Telemedicine Case Management With Usual Care in Medically Underserved Patients With Diabetes Mellitus
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association

Palmas, W., Shea, S., Starren, J., Teresi, J.E., Ganz, M.L., Burton, T.M., Pashos, C.L., Blustein, J., Field, L., Morin, P.C., Izquierdo, R.E., Silver, S., Eimicke, J.P., Langiua, R.A. & Weinstock, S.
03/01/2010

Objective
To determine whether a diabetes case management telemedicine intervention reduced healthcare expenditures, as measured by Medicare claims, and to assess the costs of developing and implementing the telemedicine intervention.
Design
We studied 1665 participants in the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel), a randomized controlled trial comparing telemedicine case management of diabetes to usual care. Participants were aged 55 years or older, and resided in federally designated medically underserved areas of New York State.
Measurements
We analyzed Medicare claims payments for each participant for up to 60 study months from date of randomization, until their death, or until December 31, 2006 (whichever happened first). We also analyzed study expenditures for the telemedicine intervention over six budget years (February 28, 2000- February 27, 2006).
Results
Mean annual Medicare payments (SE) were similar in the usual care and telemedicine groups, $9040 ($386) and $9669 ($443) per participant, respectively (p>0.05). Sensitivity analyses, including stratification by censored status, adjustment by enrollment site, and semi-parametric weighting by probability of dropping-out, rendered similar results. Over six budget years 28 821 participant/months of telemedicine intervention were delivered, at an estimated cost of $622 per participant/month.
Conclusion
Telemedicine case management was not associated with a reduction in Medicare claims in this medically underserved population. The cost of implementing the telemedicine intervention was high, largely representing special purpose hardware and software costs required at the time. Lower implementation costs will need to be achieved using lower cost technology in order for telemedicine case management to be more widely used.

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