Housing & Community Development

The Role of Faith-Based Institutions in Providing Health Education and Promoting Equal Access to Care: A Case Study of an Initiative in the Southwest Bronx

The Role of Faith-Based Institutions in Providing Health Education and Promoting Equal Access to Care: A Case Study of an Initiative in the Southwest Bronx
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 2006; 17.2: 9-19.

Kaplan S.A., Calman, N.S., Golub M., Davis J.H. & Billings, J.
01/01/2006

Although many public health initiatives have been implemented through collaborations with faith-based institutions, little is known about best practices for developing such programs. Using a community-based participatory approach, this case study examines the implementation of an initiative in the Bronx, New York, that is designed to educate community members about health promotion and disease management and to mobilize church members to seek equal access to health care services. The study used qualitative methods, including the collaborative development of a logic model for the initiative, focus groups, interviews, analysis of program reports, and participant observation. The paper examines three key aspects of the initiative’s implementation: (1) the engagement of the church leadership; (2) the use of church structures as venues for education and intervention; and (3) changes in church policies. Key findings include the importance of pre-existing relationships within the community and the prominent agenda-setting role played by key pastors, and the strength of the Coalition’s dual focus on health behaviors and health disparities. Given the churches’ demonstrated ability to pull people together, to motivate and to inspire, there is great potential for faith-based interventions, and models developed through such interventions, to address health disparities.

The Tides of Reform Revisited: Making Government Word, 1945-2002

The Tides of Reform Revisited: Making Government Word, 1945-2002
Public Administration Review 2006, Vol. 66, No. 1, pp. 6-19.

Light, P.C.
01/01/2006

The past six decades have witnessed acceleration in both the number and variety of major administrative reform statutes enacted by Congress. This increase can be explained partly by the increased involvement of Congress, a parallel decrease in activity and resistance by the presidency, and heightened public distrust toward government. At least part of the variation in the tides or philosophies of reform involves a "field of dreams" effect in which the creation of new governmental structure during the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s generated increased interest in process reforms. However, part of the acceleration and variety of reform appears to be related to the lack of hard evidence of what actually works in improving government performance. Measured by federal employees' perceptions of organizational performance, what matters most is not whether organizations were reformed in the past, but whether organizations need reform in the future and can provide essential resources for achieving their mission.

The Law of Cyber-Space: An Invitation to the Table of Negotiations

The Law of Cyber-Space: An Invitation to the Table of Negotiations
United Nations Institute for Training and Research: Geneva, October

Kamal, A.
10/01/2005

The Law of Cyber-Space is a sequel to the earlier work on Information Insecurity, in which it had been pointed out that the absence of globally harmonized legislation was turning cyber-space into an area of ever increasing dangers and worries.

It lays down the parameters for a Law of Cyber-Space, and argues in favour of starting negotiations with the full participation of the three concerned stake-holders, namely, the governments, the private sector, and civil society.

In many ways, the situation in cyber-space is similar to the problems faced in dealing with the High Seas, where the absence of any consensus legislation had also created an avoidable and acute vacuum. The international community finally woke up to the challenge, and started negotiations on the Law of the Sea. Those negotiations went on for almost a decade before they succeeded. The world is much better off as a result.

In the case of cyber-space, the challenge is far greater. The speed of change is phenomenal, new shoals and icebergs appear every day, the dangers affect all countries without exception, but global responses are sporadic or non-existent. That is why a globally negotiated and comprehensive Law of Cyber-Space is so essential.

Multiple Pathways to Community Level Impacts in HIV Prevention: Implications for Conceptualization, Implementation, and Evaluation of Interventions

Multiple Pathways to Community Level Impacts in HIV Prevention: Implications for Conceptualization, Implementation, and Evaluation of Interventions
In E.J. Trickett & W. Pequegnat (Eds.), Community Interventions and AIDS. New York: Oxford University Press,

Yoshikawa, H., Wilson, P.A., Shinn, M. & Peterson, J.L.
09/01/2005

Interventions with individuals who are at risk for HIV/AIDS have been shown to have a positive short-term impact. This book provides an overarching framework based on an ecological approach for designing and implementing HIV/AIDS intervention with longer-term, community impact. It explains the basic aspects of this ecological perspective and provides examples of how it works. It is specifically concerned with the question of the degree to which individuals behavior change can be sustained and whether interventions adequately respond to environmental risk factors.

Multiple Pathways to Community-Level Impacts in HIV Prevention: Implications for Conceptualization, Implementation, and Evaluation of Interventions

Multiple Pathways to Community-Level Impacts in HIV Prevention: Implications for Conceptualization, Implementation, and Evaluation of Interventions
In E. J. Trickett & W. Pequegnat (Eds.) Community Interventions and AIDS (pp. 28-55). New York: Oxford University Press,

Yoshikawa, H., Wilson, P.A., Peterson, J. L. & Shinn, M.
09/01/2005

Interventions with individuals who are at risk for HIV/AIDS have been shown to have a positive short-term impact. This book provides an overarching framework based on an ecological approach for designing and implementing HIV/AIDS intervention with longer-term, community impact. It explains the basic aspects of this ecological perspective and provides examples of how it works. It is specifically concerned with the question of the degree to which individuals behavior change can be sustained and whether interventions adequately respond to environmental risk factors.

The Impact of Medicaid Managed Care on Primary Care Physician Participation in Medicaid

The Impact of Medicaid Managed Care on Primary Care Physician Participation in Medicaid
Medical Care, Vol. 43, No. 9, pp 911-920, September

Greene, J., Blustein, J. & Remler, D.
09/01/2005

Objectives: Medicaid managed care has been touted as an important vehicle for increasing physician participation in Medicaid. Although there is anecdotal evidence that the opportunity to participate in Medicaid via managed care increases physician participation, no empirical study has validated the claim. This study explores the relationship between Medicaid managed care penetration at the county-level and the likelihood that a physician practicing in that county will participate in Medicaid.

Research Design: We used 3 waves of a large, nationally representative sample of primary care physicians from the Community Tracking Study followed across time (1996-2001) to estimate the impact of changing Medicaid managed care penetration levels on physician participation in the program. County-level Medicaid managed care penetration rates were collected directly from state Medicaid agencies for the study.

Findings: In cross-sectional bivariate and multivariate analyses, Medicaid managed care penetration is significantly associated with physician participation in Medicaid; however, the relationship is nonmonotonic, of small magnitude and generally not in the anticipated direction. Our analyses indicate that a 10 percentage point increase in managed care penetration would reduce the likelihood that physicians participate in Medicaid on average by 2.9 percentage points. Although commercial MCO penetration exhibited a small positive, linear relationship with physician participation, this was not sufficient to offset the effects of Medicaid-dominant MCO penetration. Panel data analysis supported these findings.

Conclusions: This study failed to find that increases in Medicaid managed care lead to increased primary care physician participation in Medicaid during the period 1996-2001.

Following the Money: Using Expenditure Analysis as an Evaluation Tool

Following the Money: Using Expenditure Analysis as an Evaluation Tool
American Journal of Evaluation, Volume 26, Number 2, 150-165.

Brecher, C., Silver, D. & Weitzman, B.C.
06/01/2005

This article describes the nature and utility of fiscal analysis in evaluating complex community interventions. Using New York University's evaluation of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Urban Health Initiative as an example, the authors describe issues arising in defining and operationalizing constructs for fiscal analysis. The approach's utility is demonstrated in the use of interim findings to help redefine the program's goals for resource allocation, to modify its theory of change to include greater emphasis on state-level action, and to emphasize the importance of local public schools as resource centers and intervention targets. The fiscal analysis also provides new insights into the limitations of "preventive" versus "corrective" spending categories and helps make goals for such functional reallocation more realistic. The authors discuss limitations of fiscal analysis due to available data quality, the extent of cooperation needed from public officials to collect relevant data, and the level of expertise needed to interpret the data.

Measuring School Performance and Efficiency: Implications for Practice and Research

Measuring School Performance and Efficiency: Implications for Practice and Research
Eye on Education: Larchmont, NY,

Stiefel, L., Rubenstein, R., Schwartz, A.E. & Zabel, J., eds.
05/30/2005

School performance and efficiency measurement have taken center stage in much of the debate and research in education policy since at least the mid-1990s. Despite the clear theoretical and practical importance of understanding the ways in which school performance can be measured, only limited research exists on alternative ways to measure how well schools are educating their students, delivering what parents want, and using resources efficiently. In this volume, the authors of eight chapters address the measurement of school performance, an issue that lies in between the study of technical characteristics of student assessments, on the one hand, and the effectiveness of accountability systems that use those assessments, on the other. Although psychometricians focus on the reliability, validity, and fairness of individual student assessments, and social scientists address whether state and local accountability systems that use those student assessments are effective ways to influence school performance, the authors of this volume consider the pros and cons of alternative measurements of school performance and efficiency, per se.

Integrating Rigor and Relevance in Public Administration Scholarship: The Contribution of Narrative Inquiry

Integrating Rigor and Relevance in Public Administration Scholarship: The Contribution of Narrative Inquiry
Public Administration Review, Vol. 65, May/June, No.3, pp. 286.

Dodge, J., Ospina, S. & Foldy, E.G.
05/01/2005

A traditional view of scholarly quality defines rigor as the application of method and assumes an implicit connection with relevance. But as an applied field, public administration requires explicit attention to both rigor and relevance. Interpretive scholars' notions of rigor demand an explicit inclusion of relevance as an integral aspect of quality. As one form of interpretive research, narrative inquiry illuminates how this can be done. Appreciating this contribution requires a deeper knowledge of the logic of narrative inquiry, an acknowledgement of the diversity of narrative approaches, and attention to the implications for judging its quality. We use our story about community-based leadership research to develop and illustrate this argument.

The Use of Logic Models by Community-Based Initiatives

The Use of Logic Models by Community-Based Initiatives
Evaluation and Program Planning 2005; 28:167-172

Kaplan, S.A. & Garrett, K.E.
03/11/2005

Many grant programs now require community-based initiatives to develop logic models as part of the application process or to facilitate program monitoring and evaluation. This paper examines three such programs to understand the benefits and challenges of using logic models to help build consensus and foster collaboration within a community coalition, strengthen program design, and facilitate internal and external communication. The paper concludes with recommendations for how to make the logic model development process more useful for community-based initiatives.

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