Measuring the Degree of Integrated Tuberculosis and HIV Service Delivery in Cape Town, South Africa
To address the considerable tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infected population in Cape Town, a number of clinics have made an effort of varying degrees to integrate TB and HIV services. This article describes the development of a theory-based survey instrument designed to quantify the extent to which services were integrated in 33 clinics and presents the results of the survey. Using principal factor analysis, eight factors were extracted and used to make comparisons across three types of clinics: co-located TB and antiretroviral therapy (ART) services, clinics with TB services only and clinics with ART only. Clinics with co-located services scored highest on measures related to integrated TB/ART service delivery compared to clinics with single services, but within group variability was high indicating that co-location of TB and ART services is a necessary but insufficient condition for integrated service delivery. In addition, we found almost all clinics with only TB services in our sample had highly integrated pre-ART services, suggesting that integration of these services across a large number of clinics is feasible and acceptable to clinic staff. TB clinics with highly integrated pre-ART services appear to be efficient sites for introducing ART given that co-infected patients are already engaged in care, and may potentially facilitate earlier access to treatment and minimize loss to follow-up.