Governance

Analysis of FY 2012 Budget and Deficit Reduction Plans

Analysis of FY 2012 Budget and Deficit Reduction Plans
Women of Color Policy Network. "Analysis of FY 2012 Budget and Deficit Reduction Plans." April 2011

Women of Color Policy Network
04/01/2011

This month, Chairman of the House Budget Committee Representative Paul Ryan, the Congressional Progressive Caucus (CPC) and President Obama shared three very different FY 2012 budget proposals and deficit reduction strategies. The CPC's People's Budget calls for investments in job creation and deficit elimination by increasing tax revenues from the wealthy. President Obama's deficit reduction plan combines spending cuts, tax reform and enhancing the Affordable Care Act to reduce growth in health care spending. Representative Ryan's proposal extends tax cuts to wealthy individuals and corporations, while cutting social safety net programs such as food stamps, housing assistance, and Pell Grants. This policy brief evaluates each proposal's impact on people of color and recommends investing in job creation and infrastructure to strengthen communities in times of hardship and prosperity.

 

Wage Disparities and Women of Color

Wage Disparities and Women of Color

Women of Color Policy Network
04/01/2011

More women are becoming the primary wage earners in households across the country, yet men continue earn higher wages than women. Occupational segmentation and unequal access to wealth lead to exponentially growing career income gaps for women. This brief explores the policy implications of recent Census data revealing that women earn 77 cents for every dollar earned by men. With Black women and Hispanic women earning even less, targeted policy solutions must incorporate opportunities for women in low-income and marginalized communities. Policies will contribute to greater wage equity if they incorporate: pay check fairness; the extension of paid sick leave benefits to caregivers; and increased access to labor market, child care, and educational opportunities for low-income women.

The Supplemental Poverty Measure and Communities of Color

The Supplemental Poverty Measure and Communities of Color

Women of Color Policy Network
03/01/2011

With nearly 44 million individuals living in poverty, including 24 million people of color, the anticipated publication of the Supplemental Poverty Measure in the fall of 2011 provides an opportunity to review our nation's progress towards poverty alleviation and collaboratively strategize ways to ensure that anti-poverty efforts are inclusive of the most vulnerable segments of society. This policy brief explains how the new measure will help policymakers, researchers, and advocates better understand the breadth and depth of poverty's impact on communities of color.

Developing coastal adaptation to climate change in the New York City infrastructure-shed: process, approach, tools, and strategies

Developing coastal adaptation to climate change in the New York City infrastructure-shed: process, approach, tools, and strategies

C. Rosenzweig, W. D. Solecki, R. Blake, M. Bowman, C. Faris, V. Gornitz, R. Horton, K. Jacob, A. LeBlanc, R. Leichenko, M. Linkin, D. Major, M. O’Grady, L. Patrick, E. Sussman, G. Yohe, R. Zimmerman.
02/26/2011

While current rates of sea level rise and associated coastal flooding in the New York City region appear to be manageable by stakeholders responsible for communications, energy, transportation, and water infrastructure, projections for sea level rise and associated flooding in the future, especially those associated with rapid icemelt of the Greenland and West Antarctic Icesheets, may be outside the range of current capacity because extreme events might cause flooding beyond today's planning and preparedness regimes. This paper describes the comprehensive process, approach, and tools for adaptation developed by the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) in conjunction with the region's stakeholders who manage its critical infrastructure, much of which lies near the coast. It presents the adaptation framework and the sea-level rise and storm projections related to coastal risks developed through the stakeholder process. Climate change adaptation planning in New York City is characterized by a multi-jurisdictional stakeholder-scientist process, state-of-the-art scientific projections and mapping, and development of adaptation strategies based on a risk-management approach.

The Impact of Recent Budget Proposals on Women of Color, Their Families, and Communities

The Impact of Recent Budget Proposals on Women of Color, Their Families, and Communities

Women of Color Policy Network
02/01/2011

The House and Presidential budget proposals released in February of 2011 include plans to reduce or eliminate funding to key programs that assist low-income families and communities of color. This policy brief highlights the detrimental impact of the proposed social spending cuts and emphasizes the need to invest in the long-term economic security of women of color, their families, and communities.

Assessing the cost of transfer inconvenience in public transport systems: A case study of the London Underground

Assessing the cost of transfer inconvenience in public transport systems: A case study of the London Underground
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 45, 2, 91-104

Guo, Zhan and Nigel H.M. Wilson
01/03/2011

Few studies have adequately assessed the cost of transfers in public transport systems, or provided useful guidance on transfer improvements, such as where to invest (which facility), how to invest (which aspect), and how much to invest (quantitative justification of the investment). This paper proposes a new method based on path choice,3 taking into account both the operator's service supply and the customers' subjective perceptions to assess transfer cost and to identify ways to reduce it. This method evaluates different transfer components (e.g., transfer walking, waiting, and penalty) with distinct policy solutions and differentiates between transfer stations and movements.

The method is applied to one of the largest and most complex public transport systems in the world, the London Underground (LUL), with a focus on 17 major transfer stations and 303 transfer movements. This study confirms that transfers pose a significant cost to LUL, and that cost is distributed unevenly across stations and across platforms at a station.

Transfer stations are perceived very differently by passengers in terms of their overall cost and composition. The case study suggests that a better understanding of transfer behavior and improvements to the transfer experience could significantly benefit public transport systems.

 

Disentangling Accountability and Competence in Elections: Evidence from U.S. Term Limits

Disentangling Accountability and Competence in Elections: Evidence from U.S. Term Limits
With James Alt and Ethan Bueno de Mesquita.  The Journal of Politics 73 (1): 171-186.

Rose, S.
01/01/2011

We exploit variation in U.S. gubernatorial term limits across states and time to empirically estimate two separate effects of elections on government performance. Holding tenure in office constant, differences in performance by reelection-eligible and term-limited incumbents identify an accountability effect: reelection-eligible governors have greater incentives to exert costly effort on behalf of voters. Holding term-limit status constant, differences in performance by incumbents in different terms identify a competence effect: later-term incumbents are more likely to be competent both because they have survived reelection and because they have experience in office. We show that economic growth is higher and taxes, spending, and borrowing costs are lower under reelection-eligible incumbents than under term-limited incumbents (accountability), and under reelected incumbents than under first-term incumbents (competence), all else equal. In addition to improving our understanding of the role of elections in representative democracy, these findings resolve an empirical puzzle about the disappearance of the effect of term limits on gubernatorial performance over time.

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