Governance

How Brazilian prosecutors enforce labor and environmental laws: The organizational basis of creative problem-solving

How Brazilian prosecutors enforce labor and environmental laws: The organizational basis of creative problem-solving
Regulation and Governance (special issue)

Coslovsky, S.
09/02/2011

Brazil's 8,000 prosecutors sit at the crux of the country's legal system, deciding who gets indicted and sued for common crimes and a wide array of civil violations. In many cases, particularly those concerning the most recalcitrant labor and environmental violations, prosecutors realize that compliance is not only a matter of avarice or ignorance. To the opposite, in these cases compliance requires costly and risky changes in business practices that the managers of the implicated firms are unwilling or unable to carry out on their own. Rather than prosecute, which they anticipate will eliminate jobs and undermine business profitability, or clarify the law, which they fear will be futile, prosecutors reach out and assemble a network of institutions willing to cover some of the costs and insure some of the risks associated with these changes. Ultimately, they lead an effort of inter-institutional root-cause analysis and joint-problem solving, and through this endeavor they make compliance the easiest and most obvious choice for all involved. This paper briefly describes this kind of creative problem-solving and then it analyzes how this government agency encourages and sustains this kind of deviant practice within its ranks.

2011 Federal Policy Review

2011 Federal Policy Review
Published by the Women of Color Policy Network, August 2011.

Women of Color Policy Network
08/01/2011

This summary of legislative action pertinent to the Network's federal policy priorities assesses how noteworthy acts and trends in Congress affect the lives of women of color, their families, and communities. Covering the areas of economic security, social equity, and immigration, the brief provides updates on the status of reproductive rights, job creation, safety net programs, and the DREAM Act, among other topics. The Network's assessment of the policy implications indicates that although the federal legislative landscape offers some progressive opportunities for women of color, obstacles to their advancement loom large amongst ongoing budget and deficit reduction negotiations.

First to Fall, Last to Climb: Black Workers in the New Economy

First to Fall, Last to Climb: Black Workers in the New Economy

Women of Color Policy Network
08/01/2011

After decades of slow, but steady economic progress, the Great Recession of 2007-2009 erased many of the previous gains made by Blacks in the labor market. Black unemployment rates have consistently climbed since the recession was declared officially over in 2009, peaking at 16.5 percent in 2010. Employed Black workers, in turn, are disproportionately represented in low-wage, low-skill industries and occupations that offer minimal benefits or opportunities for career advancement. This policy brief provides a snapshot of how Black workers are faring in the labor market and poses policy recommendations for building the long-term economic security of Black workers, their families, and communities.

State Legislative Roundup for 2011

State Legislative Roundup for 2011

Women of Color Policy Network
06/01/2011

As state sessions draw to a close, this brief examines legislative activity in the first half of 2011 in three main areas—economic security, immigration reform, and reproductive rights—and highlights what state-level legislative wins and losses mean for women of color and their families. Clear trends emerge in this summary: an unprecedented number of attacks on workers, immigrant rights, and women’s reproductive health represent challenges ahead for women of color. At the same time, many setbacks were accompanied with signs of promise, including notable rejections of anti-immigrant measures and legal challenges to legislation restricting women’s access to reproductive health services.

Microfinance and Social Investment

Microfinance and Social Investment
Annual Review of Financial Economics, vol. 3, ed. Robert Merton and Andrew Lo. 2011: 407-434.

Conning, J. & Morduch, J.
04/08/2011

This paper puts a corporate finance lens on microfinance.  Microfinance aims to democratize global financial markets through new contracts, organizations, and technology. We explain the roles that government agencies and socially-minded investors play in supporting the entry and expansion of private intermediaries in the sector, and we disentangle debates about competing social and commercial firm goals. We frame the analysis with theory that explains why microfinance institutions serving lower-income communities charge high interest rates, face high costs, monitor customers relatively intensively, and have limited ability to lever assets. The analysis blurs traditional dividing lines between non-profits and for-profits and places focus on the relationship between target market, ownership rights and access to external capital.

A Look at SB 1070 and State-Level Immigration Efforts

A Look at SB 1070 and State-Level Immigration Efforts

Women of Color Policy Network
04/01/2011

Arizona's far-reaching anti-immigration bill, SB 1070, sparked a trend of copycat legislation introduced in 30 states. While most efforts were unsuccessful, SB 1070 and copycat laws have severe negative implications for undocumented people and their families, including American children. SB 1070 and similar legislation create barriers for undocumented individuals to report unsafe working conditions and domestic abuse, separate U.S. citizen children from their parents through deportations, and impose undue fiscal burdens on both law enforcement and overall state budgets in economic recession. This brief highlights state policy responses that strengthen economic security through measures that support immigrant families and enrich communities.

Analysis of FY 2012 Budget and Deficit Reduction Plans

Analysis of FY 2012 Budget and Deficit Reduction Plans
Women of Color Policy Network. "Analysis of FY 2012 Budget and Deficit Reduction Plans." April 2011

Women of Color Policy Network
04/01/2011

This month, Chairman of the House Budget Committee Representative Paul Ryan, the Congressional Progressive Caucus (CPC) and President Obama shared three very different FY 2012 budget proposals and deficit reduction strategies. The CPC's People's Budget calls for investments in job creation and deficit elimination by increasing tax revenues from the wealthy. President Obama's deficit reduction plan combines spending cuts, tax reform and enhancing the Affordable Care Act to reduce growth in health care spending. Representative Ryan's proposal extends tax cuts to wealthy individuals and corporations, while cutting social safety net programs such as food stamps, housing assistance, and Pell Grants. This policy brief evaluates each proposal's impact on people of color and recommends investing in job creation and infrastructure to strengthen communities in times of hardship and prosperity.

 

Wage Disparities and Women of Color

Wage Disparities and Women of Color

Women of Color Policy Network
04/01/2011

More women are becoming the primary wage earners in households across the country, yet men continue earn higher wages than women. Occupational segmentation and unequal access to wealth lead to exponentially growing career income gaps for women. This brief explores the policy implications of recent Census data revealing that women earn 77 cents for every dollar earned by men. With Black women and Hispanic women earning even less, targeted policy solutions must incorporate opportunities for women in low-income and marginalized communities. Policies will contribute to greater wage equity if they incorporate: pay check fairness; the extension of paid sick leave benefits to caregivers; and increased access to labor market, child care, and educational opportunities for low-income women.

The Supplemental Poverty Measure and Communities of Color

The Supplemental Poverty Measure and Communities of Color

Women of Color Policy Network
03/01/2011

With nearly 44 million individuals living in poverty, including 24 million people of color, the anticipated publication of the Supplemental Poverty Measure in the fall of 2011 provides an opportunity to review our nation's progress towards poverty alleviation and collaboratively strategize ways to ensure that anti-poverty efforts are inclusive of the most vulnerable segments of society. This policy brief explains how the new measure will help policymakers, researchers, and advocates better understand the breadth and depth of poverty's impact on communities of color.

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