Labor

Race and the Invisible Hand: How White Networks Exclude Black Men from Blue Collar Jobs

Race and the Invisible Hand: How White Networks Exclude Black Men from Blue Collar Jobs
Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003

Royster, D.
01/01/2003

From the time of Booker T. Washington to today, and William Julius Wilson, the advice dispensed to young black men has invariably been, "Get a trade." Deirdre Royster has put this folk wisdom to an empirical test—and, in Race and the Invisible Hand, exposes the subtleties and discrepancies of a workplace that favors the white job-seeker over the black. At the heart of this study is the question: Is there something about young black men that makes them less desirable as workers than their white peers? And if not, then why do black men trail white men in earnings and employment rates? Royster seeks an answer in the experiences of 25 black and 25 white men who graduated from the same vocational school and sought jobs in the same blue-collar labor market in the early 1990s. After seriously examining the educational performances, work ethics, and values of the black men for unique deficiencies, her study reveals the greatest difference between young black and white men—access to the kinds of contacts that really help in the job search and entry process.

 

Racial and Ethnic Minorites Section Oliver Cromwell Cox Award, American Sociological Association

C. Wright Mills Award Finalist, Society for the Study of Social Problems

Enacting Labor Management Cooperation: New Competencies for the New Times

Enacting Labor Management Cooperation: New Competencies for the New Times
in Jonathan Brock and David B. Lipsky (ed.) Going Public: The Role of Labor-Management Relations in Delivering Quality Government Services. Champaign, Illinois: Industrial Relations Research Association. 2003, pp. 137-170.

Ospina, S. & Yaroni, A.
01/01/2003

The public sector currently employs around 40 percent of all union members in the United States. Pressures for cost-effective and quality government services have placed new demands on the labor-management relationship. A fluctuating set of expectations about the appropriate responsibilities of government and a shifting political culture are severely testing the ability of the public sector to meet demands for increased accountability and expanded services. Especially in an age of knowledge workers, the traditional division between labor and management regarding leadership and work may no longer be viable. Going Public examines the forces affecting labor and management and the prospects for adopting service-oriented cooperative relationships as a key strategy for meeting the expanded demands on the public sector.

Erosion and Reform from the Center in Kenya

Erosion and Reform from the Center in Kenya
in James Wunsch and Dele Olowu, eds., Local Governance in Africa: The Challenges of Democratic Decentralization. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner Publishers,

Smoke, P.
01/01/2003

Kenya has a rich history of local governance, both from ethnic-group traditions and the system set up during the British colonial era, when local governments were fairly independence (1963), when Kenya's economy and population growth accelerated, demands were so heavy that some local governments could not deliver key services adequately. This situation, combined with the central government's desire for political consolidation to minimize ethnic power conflicts that increased in the postcolonial era, prompted the government to weaken local authorities. Key services (health, education, major roads) were recentralized, and the local graduated personal tax (GPT) was taken over by the center. Grants were established to compensate local governments for their revenue losses, but they were gradually phased out. Control over local governments expanded, with few spending, revenue, or employment decisions permitted without scrutiny by the Ministry of Local Government (MLG).

Primary Care, Social Inequality, and Stroke Mortality in U.S. States--a Longitudinal Analysis, 1985-1995

Primary Care, Social Inequality, and Stroke Mortality in U.S. States--a Longitudinal Analysis, 1985-1995
Stroke Volume 34 Number 8, pages 1958-64.

Shi, L., Macinko, J., Starfield, B. & Politzer, R.
01/01/2003

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to test whether primary care reduces the impact of income inequality on stroke mortality. METHODS: This study used pooled time-series cross-sectional analysis of 11 years of state-level data (n=549). Analyses controlled for education levels, unemployment, racial/ethnic composition, and percent urban. Contemporaneous and time-lagged covariates were modeled. RESULTS: Primary care was negatively associated with stroke mortality in models including all covariates (P<0.0001). The impact of income inequality on stroke mortality was reduced in the presence of primary care (P<0.0001) but disappeared with the addition of covariates (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of social policy that addresses sociodemographic determinants of health, primary care promotion may serve as a palliative strategy for combating stroke mortality and reducing the adverse impact of income inequality on health.

Public Attitudes Toward Low-Income Children and Families: How Employment Barriers and Welfare/Work Status Affect Public Support for Government Assistance

Public Attitudes Toward Low-Income Children and Families: How Employment Barriers and Welfare/Work Status Affect Public Support for Government Assistance
Communications Research Brief, National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University,

Lennon, M.C., Applebaum, L.D. & Aber, J.L.
01/01/2003

This report examines how the public responds to specific characteristics of women who face economic struggles. Our subject’s characteristics are randomly varied to include her barriers to employment (such as physical disability, mental illness, living in an area with high unemployment, and trouble with reliable child care) and whether she works or receives welfare.

Reader in Gender, Work and Organization

Reader in Gender, Work and Organization
Blackwell Publishers,

Ely, R., Foldy, E.G. & Scully, M.
01/01/2003

This reader uses an alternative approach to gender at work to provoke new thinking about traditional management topics, such as leadership and negotiation. Presents students with an alternative conceptual approach to gender in the workplace. Connects gender with other dimensions of difference such as race and class for a deeper understanding of diversity in organizations. Illustrates how traditional images of competence and the ideal worker result in narrow ways of thinking about work, limiting both opportunity and organizational effectiveness. Provokes new ways of thinking about leadership, human resource management, negotiation, globalization and organizational change.

The World Cities Project: Rationale, Organization, and Design for Comparison of Megacity Health Systems

The World Cities Project: Rationale, Organization, and Design for Comparison of Megacity Health Systems
Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, vol. 79, no. 4, December

Rodwin, V.G. & Gusmano, M.K.
12/01/2002

This article provides an overview of the World Cities Project (WCP), our rationale for it, our framework for comparative analysis, and an overview of current studies in progress. The WCP uses New York, London, Paris, and Tokyo as a laboratory in which to study urban health, particularly the evolution and current organization of public health infrastructure, as well as the health status and quality of life in these cities. Comparing world cities in wealthier nations is important because of (1) global trends in urbanization, emerging health risks, and population aging; (2) the dominant influence of these cities on “megacities” of developing nations; and (3) the existence of data and scholarship about these world cities, which provides a foundation for comparing their health systems and health. We argue that, in contrast to nation-states, world cities provide opportunities for more refined comparisons and cross-national learning. To provide a framework for WCP, we define an urban core for each city and examine the similarities and differences among them. Our current studies shed light on inequalities in health care use and health status, the importance of neighborhoods in protecting population health, and quality of life in diverse urban communities.

Telecommuting and the Demand for Urban Living: A Preliminary Look at White-Collar Workers

Telecommuting and the Demand for Urban Living: A Preliminary Look at White-Collar Workers
Urban Studies 39(4),

Ellen, I.G. & Hempstead, K.
01/01/2002

With recent advances in communications technology, telecommuting appears to be an increasingly viable option for many workers. For urban researchers, the key question is whether this growing ability to telecommute is altering residential location decisions and leading households to live in smaller, lower-density and more remote locations. Using the Work Schedules supplement from the 1997 Current Population Study, this paper explores this question. Specifically, it examines the prevalence of telecommuting, explores the relationship between telecommuting and the residential choices of white-collar workers and, finally, speculates about future impacts on residential patterns and urban form.

Low-Income and Low-Skilled Workers' Involvement in Nonstandard Employment

Low-Income and Low-Skilled Workers' Involvement in Nonstandard Employment
Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute

Lane, J., K. Mikelson, P. Sharkey, and D. Wissoker
10/01/2001

The role of alternative work arrangements—temporary help, independent contractors, on-call workers, and contract company workers—has caught the attention of both policymakers and academic researchers alike. Current research indicates that 1 in 10 workers are employed in one of these four alternative work arrangements and employment in the temporary help services industry grew five times as fast as overall non-farm employment between 1972 and 1997. This growth is likely to have important implications for low-income workers, particularly since the establishment of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant, authorized by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996, which dramatically transformed the nation's welfare system. This welfare reform, in conjunction with a strong economy, has resulted in an increasing number of low-income individuals entering the labor force. Thus, alternative work arrangements, especially for those with limited work histories, might be expected to be a natural pathway to work for such workers. However, little is known about the prevalence of alternative work arrangements as a gateway into the labor force or the resulting labor market outcomes for low-income workers and those at risk of welfare dependency. The goal of this project was to examine the role of alternative work arrangements in today's labor market, paying particular attention to the effect of such arrangements on low-income workers in alternative arrangements and those at risk of being on public assistance.

A Randomized Trial of Nurse Specialist Home Care for Women with High Risk Pregnancies: Outcomes and Costs

A Randomized Trial of Nurse Specialist Home Care for Women with High Risk Pregnancies: Outcomes and Costs
American Journal of Managed Care, Volume 7, Number 8, August

Brooten, D., Youngblut, J., Brown L., Finkler, S. et. al.
08/01/2001

OBJECTIVE: To examine prenatal, maternal, and infant outcomes and costs through 1 year after delivery using a model of prenatal care for women at high risk of delivering low-birthweight infants in which half of the prenatal care was provided in women’s homes by nurse specialists with master’s degrees. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A sample of 173 women (and 194 infants) with high-risk pregnancies (gestational or pregestational diabetes mellitus, chronic hypertension, preterm labor, or high risk of preterm labor) were randomly assigned to the intervention group (85 women and 94 infants) or the control group (88 women and 100 infants). Control women received usual prenatal care. Intervention women received half of their prenatal care in their homes, with teaching, counseling, telephone outreach, daily telephone availability, and a postpartum home visit by nurse specialists with physician backup. RESULTS:For the full sample, mean maternal age was 27 years; 85.5% of women were single mothers, 36.4% had less than a high school education, 93.6% were African American, and 93.6% had public health insurance, with no differences between groups on these variables. The intervention group had lower fetal/infant mortality vs the control group (2 vs 9), 11 fewer preterm infants, more twin pregnancies carried to term (77.7% vs 33.3%), fewer prenatal hospitalizations (41 vs 49), fewer infant rehospitalizations (18 vs 24), and a savings of more than 750 total hospital days and $2,880,000. CONCLUSION: This model of care provides a reasoned solution to improving pregnancy and infant outcomes while reducing healthcare costs.

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