Cities

Virtual District, Real Improvement: A Retrospective Evaluation of the Chancellor's District, 1996-2003

Virtual District, Real Improvement: A Retrospective Evaluation of the Chancellor's District, 1996-2003
New York University, Institute for Education and Social Policy,

Phenix, D., Siegel, D., Zaltsman, A. & Fruchter, N.
01/01/2004

This study is a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of the Chancellor’s District, a virtual district created to improve New York City’s most poorly performing public schools. New York City Schools Chancellor Rudy Crew initiated the district in 1996 to remove state-identified low-performing schools from their sub-district authorities, and to accelerate their improvement by imposing a centralized management structure, a uniform curriculum, and intensive professional development. The initiative was terminated in 2003 when a new, Mayoral-controlled regime restructured the city school system.

Welfare Reform in Miami: Implementation, Effects, and Experiences of Poor Families and Neighborhoods

Welfare Reform in Miami: Implementation, Effects, and Experiences of Poor Families and Neighborhoods
MDRC,

Brock, T., Kwakye, I., Polyné, J.C., Richburg-Hayes, L., Seith, D., Stepick, A… & Rich, S.
01/01/2004

The 1996 national welfare reform law introduced a five-year time limit on federally funded cash assistance, imposed tough new work requirements, restricted benefits for noncitizens, and gave states more flexibility to design their welfare programs than in the past. Anticipating that the law might pose particular challenges for urban areas — where poverty and welfare receipt are concentrated — MDRC launched a study to examine its implementation and effects in four big cities. This report focuses on trends in Miami-Dade County between 1996 and 2002.

What Matters to Low-Income Patients in Ambulatory Care Facilities?

What Matters to Low-Income Patients in Ambulatory Care Facilities?
Medical Care Research and Review. Sep 2004; 61: 352 - 375.

Delia, D., Hall, A. & Billings, J.
01/01/2004

Poor, uninsured, and minority patients depend disproportionately on hospital outpatient departments (OPDs) and freestanding health centers for ambulatory care. These providers confront significant challenges, including limited resources, greater demand for services, and the need to improve quality and patient satisfaction. The authors use a survey of patients in OPDs and health centers in New York City to determine which aspects of the ambulatory care visit have the greatest influence on patients’ overall site evaluation. The personal interaction between patients and physicians, provider continuity, and the general cleanliness/appearance of the facility stand out as high priorities. Access to services and interactions with other facility staff are of significant, although lesser, importance. These findings suggest ways to restructure the delivery of care so that it is more responsive to the concerns of low-income patients.

The Role of Social and Behavioral Science in Public Health Practice: A Study of the New York City Department of Health

The Role of Social and Behavioral Science in Public Health Practice: A Study of the New York City Department of Health
Journal of Urban Health 2003;80(4)625-634.

Van Devanter, N., Shinn, B., Tannert-Naing, K, Bleakley, A., Perl, S. & Cohen, N.
12/01/2003

Studies over the last decade have demonstrated the effectiveness of public health interventions based on social and behavioral science theory for many health problems. Little is known about the extent to which health departments are currently utilizing these theories. This study assesses the application of social and behavioral science to programs in the New York City Department of Health (NYCDOH). Structured open-ended interviews were conducted with executive and program management staff of the health department. Respondents were asked about the application of social and behavioral sciences within their programs, and about the benefits and barriers to increasing the use of such approaches. Themes related to the aims of the study were identified, a detailed coding manual developed, narrative data were coded independently by two investigators (kappa.85), and data analyzed. Interviews were conducted with 61 eligible individuals (response rate 88%). The most common applications of social and behavioral science were individual-level behavior change to prevent HIV transmission and community-level interventions utilizing community organizing models and/or media interventions for health promotion and disease prevention. There are generally positive attitudes about the benefits of utilizing these sciences; however, there are also reservations about expanded use because of resource constraints. While NYCDOH has successfully applied social and behavioral sciences in some areas of practice, many areas use them minimally or not at all. Increasing use will require additional resources. Partnerships with academic institutions can bring additional social and behavioral science resources to health departments and benefit researchers understanding of the health department environment.

Gender, Race,Class and Welfare Reform

Gender, Race,Class and Welfare Reform
State of Black America. National Urban League, Aug

Stafford, W.W. with Salas, D. & Mendez, M.
08/01/2003

This study on welfare reform contends that race and gender coalesce through historic and contemporary government, policy and market failures to deny benefits and jobs to women of color while blaming them for their condition. It is divided into three sections: the first addresses national policy trends with an emphasis on race and gender, the second looks at New York City, and the third offers recommendations. The report was published in the National Urban League's State of Black America, 2003.

Housing Production Subsidies and Neighborhood Revitalization: New York City’s Ten Year Capital Plan for Housing

Housing Production Subsidies and Neighborhood Revitalization: New York City’s Ten Year Capital Plan for Housing
Economic Policy Review, June 2003, pages 71-85.

Ellen, I.G., Schill, M.H., Schwartz, A.E. & Voicu, I.
06/01/2003

A perennial question in housing policy concerns the form that housing assistance should take. Although some argue that housing assistance should be thought of as a form of income support and advocate direct cash grants to needy households, others favor earmarked assistance—but they differ over whether subsidies should be given to the recipients as vouchers or to developers as production subsidies. The appropriate composition of housing assistance has recently taken on particular import. In 2000, Congress created the Millennial Housing Commission and gave it the task of evaluating the “effectiveness and efficiency” of methods to promote housing through the private sector. As part of its mandate, the commission is examining changes to existing programs as well as the creation of new production programs to increase affordable housing. This paper reexamines the debate over the appropriate form of housing assistance.

Women Of Color In New York City:Still Invisible In Policy

Women Of Color In New York City:Still Invisible In Policy
Second Annual Status of Women of Color Report.

Stafford, W.W. & Salas, D.
03/01/2003

Demography is not destiny. While groups of color - Asians, Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans - have emerged as New York City's new majority, large segments of the groups remain burdened by many of the historical problems associated with disadvantaged minorities. This report highlights the problems faced by lower-income women of color, especially single mothers. Often bypassed during the economic boom of the 1990s, these women have found that employment opportunities have all but evaporated in the current economic malaise. The elimination of federal welfare entitlements have only served to exacerbate these problems. To read more click on the link below.

Intradistrict Equity of Public Education Resources and Performance

Intradistrict Equity of Public Education Resources and Performance
Economics of Education Review, Volume 22, Number 1, pages 60-78.

Stiefel, L. & Iatarola, P.
02/01/2003

This paper presents empirical evidence on input and output equity of expenditures, teacher resources, and performance across 840 elementary and middle schools in New York City. Historically, researchers have studied interdistrict distributions, but given the large numbers of pupils and schools within many urban districts, it is important to learn about intradistrict distributions as well. The empirical work is built on a framework of horizontal, vertical, and equal opportunity equity. The results show that the horizontal equity distributions are more disparate than what would be expected relative to results of other studies, vertical equity is lacking, especially in elementary schools, and equality of opportunity is at best neutral but more often absent. Middle schools exhibit more equity than elementary schools. The paper is one of the first to measure output equity, using levels and changes in test scores to do so.

Agenda Setting for Health Care Management Research: Report of a Conference

Agenda Setting for Health Care Management Research: Report of a Conference
Health Care Management Review, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 319-322.

Kovner, A.R.
01/01/2003

Highlights the "Agenda Setting for Health Care Management Research," conference held in New York City on January 23-24, 2003. Generating research funding; Barriers to using management research; Overcoming barriers to funding.

Changing Children's Trajectories of Development: Two-Year Evidence for the Effectiveness of a School-Based Approach to Violence Prevention

Changing Children's Trajectories of Development: Two-Year Evidence for the Effectiveness of a School-Based Approach to Violence Prevention
National Center for Children in Poverty, New York, NY.

Aber, J.L., Brown, J.L., Gershoff, E.T., Jones, S.M. & Pedersen, S.F.A.
01/01/2003

Awareness of youth violence has increased in recent years, resulting in more interest in programs that can prevent violent and aggressive behavior. Although overall rates of violence among young people have declined since the mid-1990s, rates of some forms of youth aggression, violence, and crime remain high. National data reveal that, each year, about 15 percent of high school students are involved in a physical fight at school and 8 percent are threatened or injured with a weapon. 1 Urban youth are at particular risk for exposure to violence and victimization.

This report describes one of the largest and longest running school-based violence prevention programs in the country-the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP)-and discusses the results of a rigorous evaluation conducted by the National Center for Children in Poverty (NCCP) at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health. The evaluation provides concrete evidence that early, school-based prevention initiatives such as the RCCP can work and should be included in communities' efforts to prevent violence among children and youth.

 

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