Cities

Developmental Trajectories Toward Violence in Middle Childhood: Course, Demographic Differences, and Response to School-Based Intervention

Developmental Trajectories Toward Violence in Middle Childhood: Course, Demographic Differences, and Response to School-Based Intervention
Developmental Psychology , 39(2), 324-348.

Aber, J.L., Brown, L.J. & Jones, S.M..
01/01/2003

The present study addressed 3 questions concerning (a) the course of developmental trajectories toward violence over middle childhood, (b) whether and how the course of these trajectories differed by demographic subgroups of children, and (c) how responsive these trajectories were to a universal, school-based preventive intervention. Four waves of data on features of children's social-emotional development known to forecast aggression/violence were collected in the fall and spring over 2 years for a highly representative sample of 1st to 6th grade children from New York City public elementary schools (N = 11,160). Using hierarchical linear modeling techniques, synthetic growth curves were estimated for the entire sample and were conditioned on child demographic characteristics (gender, family economic resources, race/ethnicity) and amount of exposure to components of the preventive intervention. Three patterns of growth--positive linear, late acceleration, and gradual deceleration--characterized the children's trajectories, and these trajectories varied meaningfully by child demographic characteristics. Most important, children whose teachers taught a high number of lessons in the conflict resolution curriculum demonstrated positive changes in their social-emotional developmental trajectories and deflections from a path toward future aggression and violence.

Global Climate Change and Transportation Infrastructure: Lessons from the New York Area

Global Climate Change and Transportation Infrastructure: Lessons from the New York Area
in The Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Transportation: Workshop Summary and Proceedings, U.S. DOT (Center for Climate Change and Environmental Forecasting) in cooperation with the U.S. EPA, U.S. DOE, U.S.GCRP.

Zimmerman, R.
01/01/2003

Global climate change (GCC) is now well known, and its impacts are a stark reality. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), changes in global climate in the 20th century, whether from human or natural causes, are already reflected in numerous indicators for atmospheric chemistry, weather, biological, physical and economic conditions, and members of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) working groups have rated the probability of those changes as either actually occurring or at least likely to occur. The estimated impacts of these changes under varying scenarios are in many cases pronounced, and the ability to cope with these impacts varies considerably depending upon the capacity of individuals, groups and institutions to adapt.

Has Falling Crime Driven New York City’s Real Estate Boom?

Has Falling Crime Driven New York City’s Real Estate Boom?
Journal of Housing Research, Volume 14, Issue 1, pages 101-135.

Schwartz, A.E., Susin, S. & Voicu, I.
01/01/2003

New York City experienced a dramatic decrease in crime over the past decade. This article examines whether this drop has driven the city's post-1994 real estate boom. Using data that include detailed information about properties sold in New York City-including actual transaction prices-as well as information about crime, schools, and housing investment between 1998 and 1999, the authors employ both hedonic and repeat-sales house price models to analyze the relative impact of these factors on the city's property values.

The results demonstrate that falling crime rates are responsible for roughly one-third of the total post-1994 real price appreciation of property. Education quality and subsidized housing investment were each responsible for roughly 20 percent of the increase. The authors also point out that during the earlier property value bust, crime and education played a relatively small role, while subsidized housing investment seems to have played a large role.

Infant Mortality Rates in Four Cities: London, Manhattan, Paris and Tokyo

Infant Mortality Rates in Four Cities: London, Manhattan, Paris and Tokyo
Indicators - The Journal of Social Health, Winter 2002-03, Vol. 02 No. 01.

Neuberg, L.G. & Rodwin, V.G.
01/01/2003

A comparison of citywide infant mortality rates for Manhattan, Inner London, Paris, and Inner Tokyo during 1988–97 shows the Manhattan rate nearly always higher than those of the other cities. Differences in the neighborhood rate distributions of the four cities explain the citywide pattern. In contrast to the other cities, Manhattan has neighborhoods with rates substantially above its median neighborhood rate and these neighborhoods drag its citywide rate above those of the other cities.

Low Response Rate Schools in Surveys of Adolescent Risk-Taking Behaviors: Possible Biases, Possible Solution

Low Response Rate Schools in Surveys of Adolescent Risk-Taking Behaviors: Possible Biases, Possible Solution
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 57:1 , pp. 63-7.

Weitzman, B.C., Guttmacher, S., Weinberg, S. & Kapadia, F.
01/01/2003

Objectives. This investigation examined the effectiveness of intensive efforts to include frequently absent students in order to reduce bias in classroom-based studies.

Methods. Grade 10 students in 13 New York City high schools (n = 2049) completed self administered confidential surveys in 4 different phases: a 1-day classroom capture, a 1-day follow-up, and 2 separate 1-week follow-ups. Financial incentives were offered, along with opportunities for out-of-classroom participation.

Results. Findings showed that frequently absent students engaged in more risk behaviors than those who were rarely absent. Intensive efforts to locate and survey chronically absent students did not, however, significantly alter estimates of risk behavior. Weighting the data for individual absences marginally improved the estimates.

Conclusions. This study showed that intensive efforts to capture absent students in classroom-based investigations are not warranted by the small improvements produced in regard to risk behavior estimates.

Management Matters: Strengthening the Research Base to Help Improve Performance of Safety Net Providers

Management Matters: Strengthening the Research Base to Help Improve Performance of Safety Net Providers
Health Care Management Review, Volume 28, Number 4, pages 323-334.

Billings, J.
01/01/2003

It is becoming increasingly apparent that some disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations relate to performance of providers. Based on analysis of Medicaid claims records, large differences in performance among primary care providers are documented for New York City patients, suggesting the need for better evidence in making management decisions.

Natural Hazards Research & Applications Information

Natural Hazards Research & Applications Information
Center, Public Entity Risk Institute, and Institute for Civil Infrastructure Systems, Beyond September 11th: An Account of Post-Disaster Research. Special Publication #39. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado. ISBN 1877943169.

Zimmerman, R.
01/01/2003

The terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, resulted in a disaster that was unusual in U.S. experience in a number of ways: the densely developed and populated disaster site (in New York City); the type of buildings and infrastructure that were damaged; the fact that the disaster was the result of an intentional act; and the sheer scope of the emergency response that was needed. These characteristics provided an unprecedented opportunity for the natural hazard research community to help better understand what happened through programs such as the University of Colorado at Boulder's Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center's Quick Response research program and the National Science Foundation's Small Grants for Exploratory Research. Both programs enabled scholars to enter the field quickly to collect perishable data in the days and weeks after September 11th.

This volume collects the findings, lessons, and recommendations of this post-September 11 disaster research. Consisting of 20 selections by researchers who received grants to investigate questions that arose in the wake of the disaster, each piece takes a distinct view on topics ranging from engineering to behavioral science. Also included are a summary of what this post-September 11th research tells us, an overview of "quick response" as a research method, and a report of the preliminary observations made by researchers and first responders at a workshop held only a few months after the disaster.

Next of Kin Perceptions of Physician Responsiveness to Symptoms of Hospitalized Patients Near Death

Next of Kin Perceptions of Physician Responsiveness to Symptoms of Hospitalized Patients Near Death
Journal of Palliative Medicine, Volume 6, pages 531-541.

Cantor, J., Blustein, J., Carlson, M. & Gould, D.
01/01/2003

Many different medical providers visit critically ill patients during a hospitalization, and patients and family members may not feel any physician is truly in charge of care. This study explores whether perceiving that a physician was clearly in charge is associated with reports by surviving next of kin about the responsiveness of physicians to symptoms in hospitalized patients near the end of life. We conducted telephone interviews with surviving next of kin of adult patients (n = 1107) who died in one of five New York City teaching hospitals between April 1998 and June 1999 after a minimum 3-day inpatient stay. Next-of-kin ratings of whether physicians did "all they could" all or most of the time in response to patient pain, dyspnea, and affective distress (confusion, depression or emotional distress) were compared by whether the next of kin reported one or more physicians "clearly in charge" of care, adjusting for patient and next-of-kin characteristics. More than 80% of patients were reported to have experienced often serious pain, dyspnea, or affective distress. Physicians were rated as responsive to pain by 79.1% of respondents, to dyspnea by 84.9%, and to affective distress by 66.6%. Ratings of physician responsiveness to pain (p = 0.001) and affective distress (p = 0.001) were significantly lower among patients for whom no physician was seen as clearly in charge of care. This finding is consistent with the view that ensuring that a physician coordinates the care of seriously ill, hospitalized patients may improve symptom management. Further research is warranted to establish causality and identify optimal models of care.

Primary Care, Social Inequality, and Stroke Mortality in U.S. States--a Longitudinal Analysis, 1985-1995

Primary Care, Social Inequality, and Stroke Mortality in U.S. States--a Longitudinal Analysis, 1985-1995
Stroke Volume 34 Number 8, pages 1958-64.

Shi, L., Macinko, J., Starfield, B. & Politzer, R.
01/01/2003

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to test whether primary care reduces the impact of income inequality on stroke mortality. METHODS: This study used pooled time-series cross-sectional analysis of 11 years of state-level data (n=549). Analyses controlled for education levels, unemployment, racial/ethnic composition, and percent urban. Contemporaneous and time-lagged covariates were modeled. RESULTS: Primary care was negatively associated with stroke mortality in models including all covariates (P<0.0001). The impact of income inequality on stroke mortality was reduced in the presence of primary care (P<0.0001) but disappeared with the addition of covariates (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of social policy that addresses sociodemographic determinants of health, primary care promotion may serve as a palliative strategy for combating stroke mortality and reducing the adverse impact of income inequality on health.

Public Infrastructure Service Flexibility for Response and Recovery in the September 11th, 2001 Attacks at the World Trade Center

Public Infrastructure Service Flexibility for Response and Recovery in the September 11th, 2001 Attacks at the World Trade Center
in Natural Hazards Research & Applications Information Center, Public Entity Risk Institute, and Institute for Civil Infrastructure Systems, Beyond September 11th: An Account of Post-Disaster Research. Special Publication #39. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Pp. 241-268.

Zimmerman, R.
01/01/2003

After the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City on September 11, 2001, the ability to rapidly restore transportation, power, water, and environmental services to users was absolutely critical, especially to those involved in the immediate search, rescue, and recovery operations. What better way could infrastructure serve its users-both emergency workers and the general public-than to be able to respond quickly in a crisis? The ability to provide these services required a degree of flexibility, often unanticipated and unplanned, that only became apparent as the response efforts unfolded. The capability of basic infrastructure service providers to respond to public needs for transportation, energy, communication, water, sanitation, and solid waste removal after the September 11th attacks was to a great extent influenced by the flexibility of the initial infrastructure design and management functions to respond to normal system disruptions and to extreme, but not necessarily terrorist-related, events.

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