Finance

The Context for Intelligent Transportation Systems in New York State: Opportunities, Constraints, and the Need for Greater Institutional Coordination

The Context for Intelligent Transportation Systems in New York State: Opportunities, Constraints, and the Need for Greater Institutional Coordination
A Report to the Legislature by the NYU Wagner Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management, July,

Peyrebrune, H. & de Cerreño, A.L.C
07/01/2002

Prepared at the request of the New York State Assembly Legislative Commission on Critical Transportation Choices, and funded by an appropriation made available from the New York Department of Transportation's budget, the purpose of this report is to provide a review of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) as they relate to New York State transportation programs and policy and to highlight policy concerns for further consideration by the state.

The Role of the Nonprofit Board in Double Bottom Line Investing

The Role of the Nonprofit Board in Double Bottom Line Investing
Journal for Nonprofit Management, Summer 2002, Vol. 6, #1, pp. 18-30.

Chellman, C., Denison, D.V. & Weinstein, M.G.
06/01/2002

Nonprofits can use their investment policy to further their mission and hold corporations socially responsible for their actions. Colin C. Chellman, Dwight V. Denison, and Meryle G. Weinstein draw from strategic management literature to discuss the key considerations for helping a nonprofit board to reach agreement on Socially Responsible Investing objectives and policies.

Finance and Accounting for Nonfinancial Managers

Finance and Accounting for Nonfinancial Managers
3rd Edition with interactive CD, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, May 2002, 400 pages. New York: Aspen Publishers.

Finkler, S.A.
05/01/2002

For all entrepreneurs and nonfinancial professionals with budget and/or P&L responsibilities, Finance and Accounting for Nonfinancial Managers provides the basics necessary to make a solid contribution to the financial goals and success of their companies. This indispensable and easy-to-read primer gives all entrepreneurs and managers in nonfinancial areas--sales, marketing, production, and more--a complete understanding of financial terms, statements, and ratios and how they affect the operations of a business or corporation. With this information, financial managers will be able to understand: owners' equity, ratio analysis; balance sheets; income statements; LIFO liquidations; asset valuation; cash flow statements; capital leasing; liabilities; present value; operating leverage; breakeven analysis; and more. New to the third edition are chapters covering: basic tax concepts; capital structure; business plans; working capital management and banking relationships; personal finances; and accountability and controls.

Negotiating Accountability: Managerial Lessons from Identity-Based Nonprofit Organizations

Negotiating Accountability: Managerial Lessons from Identity-Based Nonprofit Organizations
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, March, Vol 31, No. 1, pp. 5-31.

Ospina, S., Diaz, W. & O'Sullivan, J.
03/01/2002

This article explores the emerging conceptualization of accountability in nonprofit organizations. This definition broadens traditional concerns with finances, internal controls, and regulatory compliance. The authors explore how the top-level managers of 4 identity-based nonprofit organizations (IBNPs) faced accountability and responsiveness challenges to accomplish their mission. The organization-community link was the core relationship in their accountability environment, helping the IBNP managers achieve what the literature calls "negotiated accountability." The managers favored organizational mechanisms to sustain this relationship in the midst of the accountability demands they experienced daily. Communication with the primary constituency tended to drive the organization's priorities and programs, helped managers find legitimate negotiation tools with other stakeholders, and helped develop a broader notion of accountability. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for other nonprofit organizations and propose questions to further clarify the concepts of broad accountability, negotiated accountability, and the link between accountability and responsiveness in nonprofits.

Classroom Based Surveys of Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior: Reducing the Bias of Absenteeism

Classroom Based Surveys of Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior: Reducing the Bias of Absenteeism
(publication link courtesy of) American Journal of Public Health 92:2 , pp. 235-237.

Guttmacher, S., Weitzman, B.C., Kapadia, F. & Weinberg, S.
01/01/2002

Objectives. This investigation examined the effectiveness of intensive efforts to include frequently absent students in order to reduce bias in classroom-based studies.
Methods. Grade 10 students in 13 New York City high schools (n = 2049) completed self-administered confidential surveys in 4 different phases: a 1-day classroom capture, a 1-day follow-up, and 2 separate 1-week follow-ups. Financial incentives were offered, along with opportunities for out-of-classroom participation.
Results. Findings showed that frequently absent students engaged in more risk behaviors than those who were rarely absent. Intensive efforts to locate and survey chronically absent students did not, however, significantly alter estimates of risk behavior. Weighting the data for individual absences marginally improved the estimates.
Conclusions. This study showed that intensive efforts to capture absent students in classroom-based investigations are not warranted by the small improvements produced in regard to risk behavior estimates.

Does Government Funding Alter Nonprofit Governance? Evidence from New York City Contractors

Does Government Funding Alter Nonprofit Governance? Evidence from New York City Contractors
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 21(3):359-379.

O'Regan, K. & Oster, S.M.
01/01/2002

This paper explores the relationship between nonprofit board governance practices and government contracting. Monitoring by a board is one way a governmental agency can help to insure quality performance by its contractors. Agencies could thus use both their selection process and their post-contracting power to influence board practice. Using a new, rich data set on the nonprofit contractors of New York City, we test a series of hypotheses on the effects of government funding on board practices. We find that significant differences exist in board practices as a function of government funding levels, differences that mark a shift of focus or energy away from some activities, towards others. Trustees of nonprofits which receive high government funding are significantly less likely to engage in the traditional board functions, such as fund raising, while more likely to engage in financial monitoring and advocacy.

GASB Statement 34: Curriculum and Teaching Concerns for Schools of Public Policy and Management

GASB Statement 34: Curriculum and Teaching Concerns for Schools of Public Policy and Management
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Volume 21, #1, Winter 2002, pp. 138-144.

Denison, D., Finkler, S.A. & Mead, D.
01/01/2002

Discusses the challenges posed by incorporating Statement No. 34 of the U.S. Governmental Accounting Standards Board, Basic Financial Statements-and Management's Discussion and Analysis-for State and Local Governments (GASB 34) in the core curriculum of a school. Generally accepted accounting principles and GASB 34; Pedagogical issues in GASB 34; Dynamism in learning governmental accounting.

Replicating Microfinance in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges

Replicating Microfinance in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges
(with Mark Schreiner) Chapter 1 of Replicating Microfinance in the United States, edited by Jim Carr and Zhong Yi Tong. Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center/Johns Hopkins University Press,

Morduch, J.
01/01/2002

Microfinance was pioneered in the developing world as the lending of small amounts of money to entrepreneurs who lacked the kinds of credentials and collateral demanded by banks. Similar practices spread from the developing to the developed world, reversing the usual direction of innovation, and today several hundred microfinance institutions are operating in the United States.

Replicating Microfinance in the United States reviews experiences in both developing and industrialized countries and extends the applications of microlending beyond enterprise to consumer finance, housing finance, and community development finance.

This book reviews experiences in both developing and industrial countries and extends the applications of microlending beyond enterprise to consumer finance, housing finance, and community development finance, concentrating especially on previously underserved households and their communities.

 

School Performance and Resource Use: The Role of Districts in New York City

School Performance and Resource Use: The Role of Districts in New York City
in Fiscal Issues in Urban Schools, Research in Education Fiscal Policy and Practice: Volume One, Christopher Roellke and Jennifer King Rice, editors. Information Age Publishing.

Schwartz, A.E., Stiefel, L. & Iatarola, P.
01/01/2002

State accountability systems as well as the system written into the reauthorized Elementary and Secondary Education Act rely on measures of performance to judge how well schools are educating their students. While the role of districts in financing schools is well known, relatively little attention has been paid to any other function the district might have in determining school performance. Advocates for school-based budgeting and school-based financing argue that educational policymaking and primary control cover budgeting is best left to schools, with more limited responsibilities for districts in areas such as support services for joint purchasing or professional development. At the same time, the movements toward greater state financing and more stringent state accountability systems are strong forces shifting revenue raising and authority aver curriculum from the district to the state level. Do districts continue to matter at all in how schools perform? Why and in what ways?

The Roles and Challenges of Intergovernmental Transfers in Asia

The Roles and Challenges of Intergovernmental Transfers in Asia
in P. Smoke and Y. H. Kim, Intergovernmental Transfers in Asia: Current Practice and Challenges for the Future (Manila, Asian Development Bank).

Kim, Y.H. & Smoke, P.
01/01/2002

Intergovernmental transfers are an important tool of public sector finance in both industrialized and developing countries. Critically examining selected intergovernmental transfers in three large Asian countries-India, Pakistan, and the Philippines-this study highlights lessons from these countries that those intending to reform their intergovernmental transfer systems might apply. Each country is considered in light of the accepted principles and international practices of intergovernmental transfers. A summary is provided that synthesizes the results from case studies, examining how they meet individual country objectives and how they relate to broader international experience.

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